Eliot L. Gardner, Ph.D.

Senior Investigator

Molecular Targets and Medications Discovery Branch, Neuropsychopharmacology Section


Biomedical Research Center
251 Bayview Boulevard
Suite 200, Room 05A707
Baltimore, MD 21224



Research Topics

Research in the following areas is directed toward the development of effective anti-addiction, anti-craving, anti-relapse medications:
  • Basic brain mechanisms underlying drug addiction, craving, and relapse
  • Endocannabinoid brain mechanisms and addiction
  • Dopamine D3 receptor antagonists
  • Glutamatergic compounds, with emphasis on the metabotropic glutamate receptor
  • GABAergic agonists, with emphasis on the GABA-B receptor
  • Slow-onset long-acting dopamine transport inhibitors
  • Drugs acting on the endocannabinoid brain system

Selected Publications

  1. Vorel SR, Liu X, Hayes RJ, Spector JA, Gardner EL. Relapse to cocaine-seeking after hippocampal theta burst stimulation. Science. 2001;292(5519):1175-8.
  2. Vorel SR, Ashby CR Jr, Paul M, Liu X, Hayes R, Hagan JJ, Middlemiss DN, Stemp G, Gardner EL. Dopamine D3 receptor antagonism inhibits cocaine-seeking and cocaine-enhanced brain reward in rats. J Neurosci. 2002;22(21):9595-603.
  3. Xi ZX, Spiller K, Pak AC, Gilbert J, Dillon C, Li X, Peng XQ, Gardner EL. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists attenuate cocaine's rewarding effects: experiments with self-administration and brain-stimulation reward in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33(7):1735-45.
  4. Zhang HY, Gao M, Liu QR, Bi GH, Li X, Yang HJ, Gardner EL, Wu J, Xi ZX. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors modulate midbrain dopamine neuronal activity and dopamine-related behavior in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(46):E5007-15.
  5. Xi ZX, Muldoon P, Wang XF, Bi GH, Damaj MI, Lichtman AH, Pertwee RG, Gardner EL. Δ8 -Tetrahydrocannabivarin has potent anti-nicotine effects in several rodent models of nicotine dependence. Br J Pharmacol. 2019;176(24):4773-4784.

Related Scientific Focus Areas

This page was last updated on Friday, November 2, 2018