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Nobel Prize

The NIH Intramural Research Program has nurtured many Nobel Prize winners who either did the bulk of their award-winning research here or trained or worked in one of our laboratories:

  • Michael Levitt (2013), with Martin Karplus and Arieh Warshel. For their development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems.

  • Robert Lefkowitz (2012), with Brian Kobilka. For their studies of G-protein-coupled receptors.

  • Richard Axel (2004), with Linda B. Buck. For their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system.

  • Arvid CarlssonPaul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel (2000). For their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.

  • Ferid Murad (1998), with Robert F. Furchgott and Louis J. Ignarro. For their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system.

  • Stanley Prusiner (1997). For his discovery of prions—a new biological principle of infection.

  • Alfred Gilman and Martin Rodbell (1994). For their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells.

  • J. Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus (1989). For their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes.

  • Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein (1985). For their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism.

  • Baruj Benacerraf (1980), with Jean Dausset and George D. Snell. For their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions.

  • Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek (1976). For their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases.

  • Christian B. Anfinsen (1972). For his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation.

  • Julius Axelrod (1970), with Sir Bernard Katz and Ulf von Euler. For their discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.

  • Marshall W. Nirenberg (1968), with Robert W. Holley and Har Gobind Khorana. For their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis. Click to view a video interview with Dr. Nirenberg.

  • Arthur Kornberg (1959), with Severo Ochoa. For their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.