Elissa P. Lei, Ph.D.
Nuclear Organization and Gene Expression Section, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Genetics
Building NIHBC 50, Room 3351
50 South Dr
Bethesda, MD 20892
+1 301 435 8989
The work performed in my laboratory will help determine how the 3-dimensional organization of DNA within each cell affects cellular function and identity throughout development.
Importance of genome organization and our approaches
It has become increasingly apparent that proper control of gene expression requires complex organization of DNA at the level of chromatin. We study how genome organization contributes to regulation of gene expression, which ultimately controls how a single genome can give rise to a myriad of distinct cell types with different functions and properties. Our primary model system is Drosophila melanogaster, which harbors powerful genetics, biochemistry, imaging, and genomics approaches as well as a number of well-characterized cell lines derived from a variety of tissues and stages of development. We also utilize mouse and silkworm moth models to study conserved aspects of genome organization.
Relevance of chromatin insulators
Chromatin insulators are DNA-protein complexes that influence gene expression by establishing chromatin domains subject to distinct transcriptional controls, likely through alteration of their spatial organization. Insulators are required for the formation of topologically associating domains (TADs), and on a local scale, insulators enforce the strict specific and temporal expression of loci with complex enhancer and/or promoter configuration. Examples include metazoan Hox genes, master regulators of body segmentation, and the vertebrate beta-globin locus, which changes in expression during erythroid development. Loss of insulator activity can result in substantial positive or negative changes in gene expression, culminating in disease, defects in development, and/or lethality. For example, deletion of insulator binding sites at the H19/IGF2 imprinting center have been implicated in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Wilms’ Tumor. Moreover, recent studies have shown that loss of insulator activity in IDH1 mutant gliomas and T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias leads to disruption of boundaries between chromatin domains and subsequent oncogene activation.
Tissue-specific regulation of insulator activity
Drosophila harbors the largest diversity of known chromatin insulator complexes. We recently identified two novel, tissue-specific negative regulators of gypsy insulator function that affect both enhancer blocking and barrier activities. Shep can bind directly to Su(Hw) as well as another core component of the gypsy insulator complex, potentially competing with inter- or intra-insulator complex interactions and thereby neutralizing insulator activity. Shep is required for neuronal remodeling during development and is highly enriched in the CNS, perhaps serving to negatively regulate insulator function in these cell types to promote CNS-specific gene expression programs. Shep harbors two highly conserved RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), and genetic evidence points to a functional relationship between its RNA-binding capability and insulator function. In contrast, Rump, which contains 3 RRMs, antagonizes gypsy insulator activity in tissues outside of the CNS.
RNA-dependent insulator function
Using RNA immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (RIP-seq), we made the striking finding that certain mRNAs, including that encoding Su(Hw) itself, associate stably with gypsy insulator complexes. Expression of untranslatable versions of these mRNAs alters insulator body localization and promotes insulator activity. We speculate that these mRNAs also harbor a noncoding function, such as acting as a scaffold for insulator complexes at specific subnuclear locations. We continue to delve into the mechanisms by which these mRNAs function and the roles of associated RNA-binding proteins in insulator regulation.
(This work was highlighted in Editors' Choice, Riddihough G. Noncoding mRNAs. Science, (341)6149: 938, 2013.)
- Senior Investigator, Nuclear Organization and Gene Expression Section, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Genetics, NIDDK, NIH, 2021-present
- Nancy Nossal Mentorship Award, NIDDK, NIH, 2020
- Senior Investigator, Nuclear Organization and Gene Expression Section, Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, NIDDK, NIH, 2014-2020
- Investigator, Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology NIDDK, NIH, 2006-2014
- Postdoctoral Fellow, Laboratory of Victor G. Corces, Johns Hopkins University, 2003-2006
- Ph.D., Laboratory of Pamela A. Silver, Harvard Medical School, 1997-2002
Bag I, Chen S, Rosin LF, Chen Y, Liu CY, Yu GY, Lei EP. M1BP cooperates with CP190 to activate transcription at TAD borders and promote chromatin insulator activity. Nat Commun. 2021;12(1):4170.
Rosin LF, Gil J Jr, Drinnenberg IA, Lei EP. Oligopaint DNA FISH reveals telomere-based meiotic pairing dynamics in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. PLoS Genet. 2021;17(7):e1009700.
Chen D, Lei EP. Function and regulation of chromatin insulators in dynamic genome organization. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2019;58:61-68.
Bag I, Dale RK, Palmer C, Lei EP. The zinc-finger protein CLAMP promotes gypsy chromatin insulator function in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2019;132(5).
Chen D, Dale RK, Lei EP. Shep regulates Drosophila neuronal remodeling by controlling transcription of its chromatin targets. Development. 2018;145(1).
Related Scientific Focus Areas
Genetics and Genomics
This page was last updated on October 14th, 2021