Clifton I. Bogardus III, M.D.

Senior Investigator

Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch


Building PECRB, Room 102
1550 E Indian School Rd
Phoenix, AZ 85014

+1 602 440 6570

Research Topics

The goal of our research is to determine the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity and their complications to improve prevention and treatment.

Current Research

Our research goal is to determine the role of genetic and physiologic factors in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity and their complications. We use genome-wide association studies to identify variants associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and pre-diabetic/pre-obesity traits in specific populations. We look at expression data from skeletal muscle and adipose biopsies to identify expression profiles and metabolic traits that may predict disease onset. Identifying, quantifying, and understanding specific genetically determined susceptibility or protective factors could lead to prevention by identifying individuals at risk and to improved treatment.

Applying our Research

Identifying the specific etiologies of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity will lead to improved prevention and treatments.

Need for Further Study

The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing throughout the developed and developing world and disproportionally affects minority populations. The causes of these conditions are complex and include genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that may vary between populations. To improve prevention and treatments, more research is needed to identify the specific factors increasing susceptibility to these conditions in different populations.


  • Chief, Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, NIDDK, NIH, 2000–present
  • Chief, Clinical Diabetes and Nutrition Section, NIDDK, NIH, 1985–2000
  • NIH Clinical Research Training Fellowship, University of Vermont, 1979–1982
  • Internal Medicine Residency, Dartmouth - Hitchcock Medical Center, 1977–1979
  • Commander, U.S. Army Health Clinic, 1975–1977
  • Internal Medicine Internship, Dartmouth - Hitchcock Medical Center, 1974–1975
  • M.D., University of Rochester School of Medicine, 1974
  • B.S., Lafayette College, 1970

Selected Publications

  1. Thearle MS, Muller YL, Hanson RL, Mullins M, Abdussamad M, Tran J, Knowler WC, Bogardus C, Krakoff J, Baier LJ. Greater impact of melanocortin-4 receptor deficiency on rates of growth and risk of type 2 diabetes during childhood compared with adulthood in Pima Indians. Diabetes. 2012;61(1):250-7.

  2. Malhotra A, Kobes S, Knowler WC, Baier LJ, Bogardus C, Hanson RL. A genome-wide association study of BMI in American Indians. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19(10):2102-6.

  3. Jumpertz R, Le DS, Turnbaugh PJ, Trinidad C, Bogardus C, Gordon JI, Krakoff J. Energy-balance studies reveal associations between gut microbes, caloric load, and nutrient absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(1):58-65.

  4. Williams RC, Muller YL, Hanson RL, Knowler WC, Mason CC, Bian L, Ossowski V, Wiedrich K, Chen YF, Marcovina S, Hahnke J, Nelson RG, Baier LJ, Bogardus C. HLA-DRB1 reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus by increased insulin secretion. Diabetologia. 2011;54(7):1684-92.

  5. Mason CC, Hanson RL, Ossowski V, Bian L, Baier LJ, Krakoff J, Bogardus C. Bimodal distribution of RNA expression levels in human skeletal muscle tissue. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:98.

This page was last updated on August 1st, 2019