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Hot Papers

Research advances from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Intramural Research Program (IRP) are often published in high-impact journals. Read some of our recent articles:

Authors: Park SJ, Gavrilova O, Brown AL, Soto JE, Bremner S, Kim J, Xu X, Yang S, Um JH, Koch LG, Britton SL, Lieber RL, Philp A, Baar K, Kohama SG, Abel ED, Kim MK, Chung JH

Journal: Cell Metab. 2017 May 2;25(5):1135-1146.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.04.008.

Hallmarks of aging that negatively impact health include weight gain and reduced physical fitness, which can increase insulin resistance and risk for many diseases, including type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanism(s) for these phenomena is poorly understood. Here we report that aging increases DNA breaks and activates DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in skeletal muscle, which suppresses mitochondrial function, energy metabolism, and physical fitness. DNA-PK phosphorylates threonines 5 and 7 of HSP90α, decreasing its chaperone function for clients such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is critical for mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism. Decreasing DNA-PK activity increases AMPK activity and prevents weight gain, decline of mitochondrial function, and decline of physical fitness in middle-aged mice and protects against type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, DNA-PK is one of the drivers of the metabolic and fitness decline during aging, and therefore DNA-PK inhibitors may have therapeutic potential in obesity and low exercise capacity.

Authors: Guo ZV, Inagaki HK, Daie K, Druckmann S, Gerfen CR, Svoboda K

Journal: Nature. 2017 May 3. doi: 10.1038/nature22324.

Persistent neural activity maintains information that connects past and future events. Models of persistent activity often invoke reverberations within local cortical circuits, but long-range circuits could also contribute. Neurons in the mouse anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) have been shown to have selective persistent activity that instructs future actions. The ALM is connected bidirectionally with parts of the thalamus, including the ventral medial and ventral anterior-lateral nuclei. We recorded spikes from the ALM and thalamus during tactile discrimination with a delayed directional response. Here we show that, similar to ALM neurons, thalamic neurons exhibited selective persistent delay activity that predicted movement direction. Unilateral photoinhibition of delay activity in the ALM or thalamus produced contralesional neglect. Photoinhibition of the thalamus caused a short-latency and near-complete collapse of ALM activity. Similarly, photoinhibition of the ALM diminished thalamic activity. Our results show that the thalamus is a circuit hub in motor preparation and suggest that persistent activity requires reciprocal excitation across multiple brain areas.

Authors: Aid M, Abbink P, Larocca RA, Boyd M, Nityanandam R, Nanayakkara O, Martinot AJ, Moseley ET, Blass E, Borducchi EN, Chandrashekar A, Brinkman AL, Molloy K, Jetton D, Tartaglia LJ, Liu J, Best K, Perelson AS, De La Barrera RA, Lewis MG, Barouch DH

Journal: Cell. 2017 May 4;169(4):610-620.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.04.008

Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with severe neuropathology in neonates as well as Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurologic disorders in adults. Prolonged viral shedding has been reported in semen, suggesting the presence of anatomic viral reservoirs. Here we show that ZIKV can persist in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and lymph nodes (LN) of infected rhesus monkeys for weeks after virus has been cleared from peripheral blood, urine, and mucosal secretions. ZIKV-specific neutralizing antibodies correlated with rapid clearance of virus in peripheral blood but remained undetectable in CSF for the duration of the study. Viral persistence in both CSF and LN correlated with upregulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), proinflammatory, and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways, as well as downregulation of extracellular matrix signaling pathways. These data raise the possibility that persistent or occult neurologic and lymphoid disease may occur following clearance of peripheral virus in ZIKV-infected individuals.

Authors: Galanternik MV, Castranova D, Gore AV, Blewett NH, Jung HM, Stratman AN, Kirby MR, Iben J, Miller MF, Kawakami K, Maraia RJ, Weinstein BM

Journal: Elife. 2017 Apr 11;6. pii: e24369. doi: 10.7554/eLife.24369.

The blood-brain barrier is essential for the proper homeostasis and function of the CNS, but its mechanism of function is poorly understood. Perivascular cells surrounding brain blood vessels are thought to be important for blood-brain barrier establishment, but their roles are not well defined. Here, we describe a novel perivascular cell population closely associated with blood vessels on the zebrafish brain. Based on similarities in their morphology, location, and scavenger behavior, these cells appear to be the zebrafishequivalent of cells variably characterized as Fluorescent Granular Perithelial cells (FGPs), perivascular macrophages, or 'Mato Cells' in mammals. Despite their macrophage-like morphology and perivascular location, zebrafish FGPs appear molecularly most similar to lymphatic endothelium, and our imaging studies suggest that these cells emerge by differentiation from endothelium of the optic choroidal vascular plexus. Our findings provide the first report of a perivascular cell population in the brain derived from vascular endothelium.

Authors: Maio N, Kim KS, Singh A, Rouault TA

Journal: Cell Metab. 2017 Apr 4;25(4):945-953.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.03.010.

The iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster of the Rieske protein, UQCRFS1, is essential for Complex III (CIII) activity, though the mechanism for Fe-S cluster transfer has not previously been elucidated. Recent studies have shown that the co-chaperone HSC20, essential for Fe-S cluster biogenesis of SDHB, directly binds LYRM7, formerly described as a chaperone that stabilizes UQCRFS1 prior to its insertion into CIII. Here we report that a transient subcomplex involved in CIII assembly, composed of LYRM7 bound to UQCRFS1, interacts with components of an Fe-S transfer complex, consisting of HSC20, its cognate chaperone HSPA9, and the holo-scaffold ISCU. Binding of HSC20 to the LYR motif of LYRM7 in a pre-assembled UQCRFS1-LYRM7 intermediate in the mitochondrial matrix facilitates Fe-S cluster transfer to UQCRFS1. The five Fe-S cluster subunits of Complex I also interact with HSC20 to acquire their clusters, highlighting the crucial role of HSC20 in the assembly of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

Authors: Sochacki KA, Dickey AM, Strub MP, Taraska JW

Journal: Nat Cell Biol. 2017 Mar 27. doi: 10.1038/ncb3498.

Dozens of proteins capture, polymerize and reshape the clathrin lattice during clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). How or if this ensemble of proteins is organized in relation to the clathrin coat is unknown. Here, we map key molecules involved in CME at the nanoscale using correlative super-resolution light and transmission electron microscopy. We localize 19 different endocytic proteins (amphiphysin1, AP2, β2-arrestin, CALM, clathrin, DAB2, dynamin2, EPS15, epsin1, epsin2, FCHO2, HIP1R, intersectin, NECAP, SNX9, stonin2, syndapin2, transferrin receptor, VAMP2) on thousands of individual clathrin structures, generating a comprehensive molecular architecture of endocytosis with nanoscale precision. We discover that endocytic proteins distribute into distinct spatial zones in relation to the edge of the clathrin lattice. The presence or concentrations of proteins within these zones vary at distinct stages of organelle development. We propose that endocytosis is driven by the recruitment, reorganization and loss of proteins within these partitioned nanoscale zones.

Authors: Kash JC, Walters KA, Kindrachuk J, Baxter D, Scherler K, Janosko KB, Adams RD, Herbert AS, James RM, Stonier SW, Memoli MJ, Dye JM, Davey RT Jr, Chertow DS, Taubenberger JK

Journal: Sci Transl Med. 2017 Apr 12;9(385). pii: eaai9321. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aai9321.

The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapies. We report a detailed study of host gene expression as measured by microarray in daily peripheral blood samples collected from a patient with severe Ebola virus disease. This individual was provided with supportive care without experimental therapies at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center from before onset of critical illness to recovery. Pearson analysis of daily gene expression signatures revealed marked gene expression changes in peripheral bloodleukocytes that correlated with changes in serum and peripheral blood leukocytes, viral load, antibody responses, coagulopathy, multiple organ dysfunction, and then recovery. This study revealed marked shifts in immune and antiviral responses that preceded changes in medical condition, indicating that clearance of replicating Ebola virus from peripheral blood leukocytes is likely important for systemic viral clearance.

Authors: Gryder BE, Yohe ME, Chou HC, Zhang X, Marques J, Wachtel M, Schaefer B, Sen N, Song YK, Gualtieri A, Pomella S, Rota R, Cleveland A, Wen X, Sindiri S, Wei JS, Barr FG, Das S, Andresson T, Guha R, Lal-Nag M, Ferrer M, Shern JF, Zhao K, Thomas CJ, Khan J.

Journal: Cancer Discov. 2017 Apr 26. pii: CD-16-1297. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-16-1297. [Epub ahead of print]

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is a life-threatening myogenic cancer of children and adolescent young adults, driven primarily by the chimeric transcription factor PAX3-FOXO1 (P3F). The mechanisms by which P3F dysregulates chromatin are unknown. We find P3F reprograms the cis-regulatory landscape by inducing (de novo) super enhancers (SEs). P3F uses SEs to setup auto-regulatory loops in collaboration with master transcription factors MYOG, MYOD and MYCN. This myogenic SE circuitry is consistent across cell lines and primary tumors. Cells harboring the fusion gene are selectively sensitive to small molecule inhibition of protein targets induced by, or bound to, PAX3-FOXO1 occupied SEs. Furthermore, P3F recruits and requires BET bromodomain protein BRD4 to function at SEs, resulting in a complete dependence on BRD4 and a significant susceptibility to BRD inhibition. These results yield novel insights into the epigenetic functions of P3F, and reveal a specific vulnerability that can be exploited for precision therapy.

Authors: Glancy B, Hartnell LM, Combs CA, Fenmou A, Sun J, Murphy E, Subramaniam S, Balaban RS

Journal: Cell Rep. 2017 Apr 18;19(3):487-496. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.03.063.

Mitochondrial network connectivity enables rapid communication and distribution of potential energy throughout the cell. However, this connectivity puts the energy conversion system at risk, because damaged elements could jeopardize the entire network. Here, we demonstrate the mechanisms for mitochondrial network protection in heart and skeletal muscle (SKM). We find that the cardiac mitochondrial reticulum is segmented into subnetworks comprising many mitochondria linked through abundant contact sites at highly specific intermitochondrial junctions (IMJs). In both cardiac and SKM subnetworks, a rapid electrical and physical separation of malfunctioning mitochondria occurs, consistent with detachment of IMJs and retraction of elongated mitochondria into condensed structures. Regional mitochondrial subnetworks limit the cellular impact of local dysfunction while the dynamic disconnection of damaged mitochondria allows the remaining mitochondria to resume normal function within seconds. Thus, mitochondrial network security is comprised of both proactive and reactive mechanisms in striated muscle cells.

Authors: Farías GG, Guardia CM, De Pace R, Britt DJ, Bonifacino JS.

Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Mar 20. pii: 201616363. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1616363114.

The ability of lysosomes to move within the cytoplasm is important for many cellular functions. This ability is particularly critical in neurons, which comprise vast, highly differentiated domains such as the axon and dendrites. The mechanisms that control lysosome movement in these domains, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that an ensemble of BORC, Arl8, SKIP, and kinesin-1, previously shown to mediate centrifugal transport of lysosomes in nonneuronal cells, specifically drives lysosome transport into the axon, and not the dendrites, in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. This transport is essential for maintenance of axonal growth-cone dynamics and autophagosome turnover. Our findings illustrate how a general mechanism for lysosome dispersal in nonneuronal cells is adapted to drive polarized transport in neurons, and emphasize the importance of this mechanism for critical axonal processes.

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