Authors: Green DS, Husain SR, Johnson CL, Sato Y, Han J, Joshi B, Hewitt SM, Puri RK, Zoon KC
Journal: Immunotherapy. 2019 Apr;11(6):483-496. doi: 10.2217/imt-2018-0158.
AIM: We have shown that IL-4 fused to Pseudomonas exotoxin (IL-4-PE) is cytotoxic to ovarian cancer cell lines. The antineoplastic properties of IFN-α, IFN-γ and IL-4-PE have been studied and showed some promise in the clinical trials. Here, we investigated whether the combination of IL-4-PE, IFN-α and IFN-γ will result in increased ovarian cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo.
MATERIALS & METHODS: Ovarian cancer cells were tested in vitro to analyze the cytotoxic effects of IL-4-PE, IFN-α and IFN-γ, and the combination of all three. Tumor-bearing xenograft mice were treated with the combination of IL-4-PE, IFN-α and IFN-γ to monitor their overall survival. The JAK/STAT phosphorylation signaling pathways were studied to delineate the mechanism of synergistic antitumor activity.
RESULTS: The combination of IL-4-PE with IFN-α and IFN-γ resulted in increased ovarian cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the synergistic antitumor effect was dependent on interferon signaling, but not IL-4-PE signaling as determined by signaling specific chemical inhibitors. The combination therapy induced the activation of critical mediators of apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: The combination of IL-4-PE with interferons increased overall survival of mice with human ovarian cancer xenograft. These data suggest that this novel combination could provide a unique approach to treating ovarian cancer.
Authors: Nakata H, Maeda K, Das D, Chang SB, Matsuda K, Rao KV, Harada S, Yoshimura K, Ghosh AK, Mitsuya H
Journal: Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 18;9(1):4828. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-41080-w.
CCR5 is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family that serves as an essential co-receptor for cellular entry of R5-tropic HIV-1, and is a validated target for therapeutics against HIV-1 infections. In the present study, we designed and synthesized a series of novel small CCR5 inhibitors and evaluated their antiviral activity. GRL-117C inhibited the replication of wild-type R5-HIV-1 with a sub-nanomolar IC50value. These derivatives retained activity against vicriviroc-resistant HIV-1s, but did not show activity against maraviroc (MVC)-resistant HIV-1. Structural modeling indicated that the binding of compounds to CCR5 occurs in the hydrophobic cavity of CCR5 under the second extracellular loop, and amino acids critical for their binding were almost similar with those of MVC, which explains viral cross-resistance with MVC. On the other hand, one derivative, GRL-10018C, less potent against HIV-1, but more potent in inhibiting CC-chemokine binding, occupied the upper region of the binding cavity with its bis-THF moiety, presumably causing greater steric hindrance with CC-chemokines. Recent studies have shown additional unique features of certain CCR5 inhibitors such as immunomodulating properties and HIV-1 latency reversal properties, and thus, continuous efforts in developing new CCR5 inhibitors with unique binding profiles is necessary.
Authors: Pan J, Yu J, Sun L, Xie C, Chang L, Wu J, Hawes S, Saez-Atienzar S, Zheng W, Kung J, Ding J, Le W, Chen S, Cai H
Journal: Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 5;9(1):3602. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40326-x.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a retinoic acid (RA) synthase, is selectively expressed by the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (nDA) neurons that preferentially degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). ALDH1A1-positive axons mainly project to the dorsal striatum. However, whether ALDH1A1 and its products regulate the activity of postsynaptic striatal neurons is unclear. Here we show that μ-type opioid receptor (MOR1) levels were severely decreased in the dorsal striatum of postnatal and adult Aldh1a1 knockout mice, whereas dietary supplement of RA restores its expression. Furthermore, RA treatment also upregulates striatal MOR1 levels and signaling and alleviates L-DOPA-induced dyskinetic movements in pituitary homeobox 3 (Pitx3)-deficient mice that lack of ALDH1A1-expressing nDA neurons. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that ALDH1A1-synthesized RA is required for postsynaptic MOR1 expression in the postnatal and adult dorsal striatum, supporting potential therapeutic benefits of RA supplementation in moderating L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.
Authors: Roper N, Gao S, Maity TK, Banday AR, Zhang X, Venugopalan A, Cultraro CM, Patidar R, Sindiri S, Brown AL, Goncearenco A, Panchenko AR, Biswas R, Thomas A, Rajan A, Carter CA, Kleiner DE, Hewitt SM, Khan J, Prokunina-Olsson L, Guha U
Journal: Cell Rep. 2019 Mar 5;26(10):2651-2666.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.02.028.
Intratumor mutational heterogeneity has been documented in primary non-small-cell lung cancer. Here, we elucidate mechanisms of tumor evolution and heterogeneity in metastatic thoracic tumors (lung adenocarcinoma and thymic carcinoma) using whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing, SNP array for copy-number alterations (CNAs), and mass-spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics of metastases obtained by rapid autopsy. APOBEC mutagenesis, promoted by increased expression of APOBEC3 region transcripts and associated with a high-risk APOBEC3 germline variant, correlated with mutational tumor heterogeneity. TP53 mutation status was associated with APOBEC hypermutator status. Interferon pathways were enriched in tumors with high APOBEC mutagenesis and IFN-γ-induced expression of APOBEC3B in lung adenocarcinoma cells, suggesting that the immune microenvironment may promote mutational heterogeneity. CNAs occurring late in tumor evolution correlated with downstream transcriptomic and proteomic heterogeneity, although global proteomic heterogeneity was significantly greater than transcriptomic and CNA heterogeneity. These results illustrate key mechanisms underlying multi-dimensional heterogeneity in metastatic thoracic tumors.
Authors: Bing SJ, Shemesh I, Chong WP, Horai R, Jittayasothorn Y, Silver PB, Sredni B, Caspi RR
Journal: J Autoimmun. 2019 Mar 7. pii: S0896-8411(19)30020-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2019.02.006. [Epub ahead of print]
AS101 is an organotellurium compound with multifaceted immunoregulatory properties that is remarkable for its lack of toxicity. We tested the therapeutic effect of AS101 in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a model for human autoimmune uveitis. Unexpectedly, treatment with AS101 elicited Treg generation in vivo in otherwise unmanipulated mice. Mice immunized for EAU with the retinal antigen IRBP and treated with AS101 developed attenuated disease, as did AS101-treated recipients of retina-specific T cells activated in vitro. In both settings, eye-infiltrating effector T cells were decreased, whereas regulatory T (Treg) cells in the spleen were increased. Mechanistic studies in vitro revealed that AS101 restricted polarization of retina-specific T cells towards Th1 or Th17 lineage by repressing activation of their respective lineage-specific transcription factors and downstream signals. Retina-specific T cells polarized in vitro towards Th1 or Th17 in the presence of AS101 had impaired ability to induce EAU in naïve recipients. Finally, AS101 promoted differentiation of retina-specific T cells to Tregs in vitro independently of TGF-β. We conclude that AS101 modulates autoimmune T cells by inhibiting acquisition and expression of effector function and by promoting Treg generation, and suggest that AS101 could be useful as a therapeutic approach for autoimmune uveitis.
Authors: Saint-Maurice PF, Coughlan D, Kelly SP, Keadle SK, Cook MB, Carlson SA, Fulton JE, Matthews CE
Journal: JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Mar 1;2(3):e190355. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.0355
IMPORTANCE: Although the benefits of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in middle age are established, the health effects of long-term participation and changes in LTPA between adolescence and middle age have not been documented.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an association exists between LTPA life course patterns and mortality.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This prospective cohort study used data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP (formerly American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study established in 1995 to 1996. Data analysis was conducted from March 2017 through February 2018. Data were analyzed for 315 059 adult AARP members living in 6 states, namely, California, Florida, Louisiana, New Jersey, North Carolina, or Pennsylvania, or 2 metropolitan areas, Atlanta, Georgia, or Detroit, Michigan.
EXPOSURES: Self-reported LTPA (hours per week) at the baseline interview for ages grouped as 15 to 18, 19 to 29, 35 to 39, and 40 to 61 years.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: All-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related, and cancer-related mortality records available through December 31, 2011.
RESULTS: Of 315,059 participants, 183 451 (58.2%) were men, and the participants were 50 to 71 years of age at enrollment. Ten LTPA trajectories (categorized as maintaining, increasing, and decreasing LTPA across time) were identified, and 71,377 deaths due to all causes, 22,219 deaths due to CVD, and 16,388 deaths due to cancer occurred. Compared with participants who were consistently inactive throughout adulthood, participants who maintained the highest amount of LTPA in each age period were at lower risks for all-cause, CVD-related, and cancer-related mortality. For example, compared with participants who were consistently inactive, maintaining higher amounts of LTPA was associated with lower all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64; 95% CI, 0.60-0.68), CVD-related (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.53-0.64), and cancer-related (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.97) mortality. Adults who were less active throughout most of the adult life course but increased LTPA in later adulthood (40-61 years of age) also had lower risk for all-cause (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.62-0.68), CVD-related (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.53-0.61), and cancer-related (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.92) mortality.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Maintaining higher LTPA levels and increasing LTPA in later adulthood were associated with comparable low risk of mortality, suggesting that midlife is not too late to start physical activity. Inactive adults may be encouraged to be more active, whereas young adults who are already active may strive to maintain their activity level as they get older.
Authors: Vaz AP, Inati SK, Brunel N, Zaghloul KA
Journal: Science. 2019 Mar 1;363(6430):975-978. doi: 10.1126/science.aau8956.
Episodic memory retrieval relies on the recovery of neural representations of waking experience. This process is thought to involve a communication dynamic between the medial temporal lobe memory system and the neocortex. How this occurs is largely unknown, however, especially as it pertains to awake human memory retrieval. Using intracranial electroencephalographic recordings, we found that ripple oscillations were dynamically coupled between the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) and temporal association cortex. Coupled ripples were more pronounced during successful verbal memory retrieval and recover the cortical neural representations of remembered items. Together, these data provide direct evidence that coupled ripples between the MTL and association cortex may underlie successful memory retrieval in the human brain.
Authors: Zhou Z, Giles KE, Felsenfeld G
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Mar 13. pii: 201900107. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1900107116. [Epub ahead of print]
We have identified regulatory mechanisms in which an RNA transcript forms a DNA duplex·RNA triple helix with a gene or one of its regulatory elements, suggesting potential auto-regulatory mechanisms in vivo. We describe an interaction at the human β-globin locus, in which an RNA segment embedded in the second intron of the β-globin gene forms a DNA·RNA triplex with the HS2 sequence within the β-globin locus control region, a major regulator of globin expression. We show in human K562 cells that the triplex is stable in vivo. Its formation causes displacement from HS2 of major transcription factors and RNA Polymerase II, and consequently in loss of factors and polymerase that bind to the human ε- and γ-globin promoters, which are activated by HS2 in K562 cells. This results in reduced expression of these genes. These effects are observed when a small length of triplex-forming RNA is introduced into cells, or when a full-length intron-containing human β-globin transcript is expressed. Related results are obtained in human umbilical cord blood-derived erythroid progenitor-2 cells, in which β-globin expression is similarly affected by triplex formation. These results suggest a model in which RNAs conforming to the strict sequence rules for DNA·RNA triplex formation may participate in feedback regulation of genes in cis.
Authors: Blivis D, Falgairolle M, O'Donovan MJ
Journal: Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 1;9(1):3201. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-39881-0.
We investigated dye-coupling between motoneurons in the L6 segment of the neonatal mouse spinal cord that contains limb-innervating motoneurons and sexually dimorphic motor nuclei. Using an isolated spinal cord preparation, we back-filled the cut, L6 ventral root with the small molecule Neurobiotin, or the much larger dextran-conjugated fluorophores for 16-24 hours. Motoneurons and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons were filled with both markers, but dye-coupling was only seen with Neurobiotin fills. Following a neurobiotin fill, fluorescence was observed in contralateral motoneurons, in motoneurons innervating adjacent ventral roots, and in ChAT-negative, putative interneurons outside of the motoneuron pools in addition to the directly back-labeled L6 motoneurons. It is known that the gap junction protein connexin-36 is widely expressed in the sexually dimorphic motoneurons of the L6 segment, suggesting that the dye-coupling is mediated by gap junctions. The technique has revealed previously unknown connections of motoneurons in the neonatal mouse cord that are likely to play important roles in the development and function of spinal circuits.
Authors: Brender JR, Kishimoto S, Merkle H, Reed G, Hurd RE, Chen AP, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Munasinghe J, Saito K, Seki T, Oshima N, Yamamoto K, Choyke PL, Mitchell J, Krishna MC
Journal: Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 4;9(1):3410. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-38981-1.
Metabolic reprogramming is one of the defining features of cancer and abnormal metabolism is associated with many other pathologies. Molecular imaging techniques capable of detecting such changes have become essential for cancer diagnosis, treatment planning, and surveillance. In particular, 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) PET has emerged as an essential imaging modality for cancer because of its unique ability to detect a disturbed molecular pathway through measurements of glucose uptake. However, FDG-PET has limitations that restrict its usefulness in certain situations and the information gained is limited to glucose uptake only. 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy theoretically has certain advantages over FDG-PET, but its inherent low sensitivity has restricted its use mostly to single voxel measurements unless dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dDNP) is used to increase the signal, which brings additional complications for clinical use. We show here a new method of imaging glucose metabolism in vivo by MRI chemical shift imaging (CSI) experiments that relies on a simple, but robust and efficient, post-processing procedure by the higher dimensional analog of singular value decomposition, tensor decomposition. Using this procedure, we achieve an order of magnitude increase in signal to noise in both dDNP and non-hyperpolarized non-localized experiments without sacrificing accuracy. In CSI experiments an approximately 30-fold increase was observed, enough that the glucose to lactate conversion indicative of the Warburg effect can be imaged without hyper-polarization with a time resolution of 12s and an overall spatial resolution that compares favorably to 18F-FDG PET.