Julie E. Ledgerwood, D.O.

Senior Clinician

Clinical Trials Program


Building 10, Room 5-2440
10 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892



Research Topics

The VRC conducts basic, translational, and clinical research. The primary mission of the VRC Clinical Trials Program (CTP) is to carry out the clinical research component of this triad both through intramural conduct of clinical trials at the NIH Clinical Center and through a broad range of support for external trials conducted by VRC collaborators and partners. These trials include evaluation of candidate vaccines and monoclonal antibodies targeting HIV, influenza, and other emerging infections. A secondary mission of the CTP is to conduct translational immunology research.

Since 2001, the CTP has launched over 70 research protocols involving candidate vaccines and monoclonal antibodies targeting HIV, smallpox, influenza, West Nile virus, Ebola, Marburg, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), malaria, chikungunya, and Zika involving over 10,000 clinical trial volunteer enrollments.

The CTP has also advanced vaccine candidates into both domestic and international Phase Ib, II, and IIb trials. Advanced product development and larger clinical trials require partnership with external clinical trial networks operated or supported by other federal agencies, academia, non-profit organizations, or the private sector. The CTP plays an important role in the planning, conduct, oversight, and analysis of external network clinical trials.


Julie E. Ledgerwood, D.O., is the Deputy Director and Chief Medical Officer at the Vaccine Research Center (VRC), NIAID, NIH. She is an international expert in the areas of pandemic response, vaccine research, and clinical trial design. She has conducted more than 70 investigational clinical trials studying vaccines and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting pathogens such as HIV, influenza, Ebola, malaria, Chikungunya, Zika, and SARS-CoV-2 in over 15 countries. In her years of clinical research, Dr. Ledgerwood has authored over 120 publications in peer-reviewed journals.

She has conducted clinical research with numerous academic and biotech/pharmaceutical industry clinical research teams and has led international vaccine research collaborations for multiple infectious disease targets. Regarding HIV prevention and treatment strategy assessment, Dr. Ledgerwood has skillfully led first in human evaluations of an extensive group of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies. She also led clinical evaluation of multiple candidate Ebola vaccines and of a potent Ebola mAb (mAb114) including an Expanded Access Protocol and randomized controlled trial for treating patients in the 2018-2020 DRC Ebola outbreaks. She was part of the initial isolation of this mAb from an Ebola virus survivor, thereby being involved in the full cycle of discovery to implementation of a successful public health intervention.

For her work, Dr. Ledgerwood has received numerous awards including elected membership to the American Society for Clinical Investigation, The Politico 50: Thinkers, Doers and Visionaries Transforming American Politics in 2015, and multiple NIAID and NIH Director's awards. She serves as a member of the Clinical Infectious Diseases faculty at the NIH and as adjunct faculty for the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Department of Allergy and Immunology. She is a graduate of Oklahoma State University College of Osteopathic Medicine, completed her residency in internal medicine at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center and a fellowship in allergy and immunology at the NIH. Dr. Ledgerwood is board-certified in allergy and immunology.

Selected Publications

  1. Ledgerwood JE, Zephir K, Hu Z, Wei CJ, Chang L, Enama ME, Hendel CS, Sitar S, Bailer RT, Koup RA, Mascola JR, Nabel GJ, Graham BS, VRC 310 Study Team.. Prime-boost interval matters: a randomized phase 1 study to identify the minimum interval necessary to observe the H5 DNA influenza vaccine priming effect. J Infect Dis. 2013;208(3):418-22.

  2. Ledgerwood JE, Coates EE, Yamshchikov G, Saunders JG, Holman L, Enama ME, DeZure A, Lynch RM, Gordon I, Plummer S, Hendel CS, Pegu A, Conan-Cibotti M, Sitar S, Bailer RT, Narpala S, McDermott A, Louder M, O'Dell S, Mohan S, Pandey JP, Schwartz RM, Hu Z, Koup RA, Capparelli E, Mascola JR, Graham BS, VRC 602 Study Team.. Safety, pharmacokinetics and neutralization of the broadly neutralizing HIV-1 human monoclonal antibody VRC01 in healthy adults. Clin Exp Immunol. 2015;182(3):289-301.

  3. Ledgerwood JE, Wei CJ, Hu Z, Gordon IJ, Enama ME, Hendel CS, McTamney PM, Pearce MB, Yassine HM, Boyington JC, Bailer R, Tumpey TM, Koup RA, Mascola JR, Nabel GJ, Graham BS, VRC 306 Study Team.. DNA priming and influenza vaccine immunogenicity: two phase 1 open label randomised clinical trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11(12):916-24.

  4. Ledgerwood JE, DeZure AD, Stanley DA, Coates EE, Novik L, Enama ME, Berkowitz NM, Hu Z, Joshi G, Ploquin A, Sitar S, Gordon IJ, Plummer SA, Holman LA, Hendel CS, Yamshchikov G, Roman F, Nicosia A, Colloca S, Cortese R, Bailer RT, Schwartz RM, Roederer M, Mascola JR, Koup RA, Sullivan NJ, Graham BS, VRC 207 Study Team.. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vector Ebola Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(10):928-938.

  5. Gaudinski MR, Houser KV, Morabito KM, Hu Z, Yamshchikov G, Rothwell RS, Berkowitz N, Mendoza F, Saunders JG, Novik L, Hendel CS, Holman LA, Gordon IJ, Cox JH, Edupuganti S, McArthur MA, Rouphael NG, Lyke KE, Cummings GE, Sitar S, Bailer RT, Foreman BM, Burgomaster K, Pelc RS, Gordon DN, DeMaso CR, Dowd KA, Laurencot C, Schwartz RM, Mascola JR, Graham BS, Pierson TC, Ledgerwood JE, Chen GL, VRC 319., VRC 320 study teams.. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of two Zika virus DNA vaccine candidates in healthy adults: randomised, open-label, phase 1 clinical trials. Lancet. 2018;391(10120):552-562.

This page was last updated on December 1st, 2021