Authors: Solis E Jr, Cameron-Burr KT, Shaham Y, Kiyatkin EA
Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018 Mar;43(4):810-819. doi: 10.1038/npp.2017.181. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid used extensively in humans for general anesthesia and analgesia. Fentanyl has emerged as a recreational drug, often in combination with heroin, and can result in lethality during overdose. Fentanyl is well characterized as an anesthetic, but the basic physiological effects of fentanyl in the brain when taken as a drug of abuse are largely unknown. We used high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats to examine the effects of intravenous fentanyl at doses within the range of possible human intake (3-40 μg/kg) on oxygen and glucose levels in nucleus accumbens (NAc). Fentanyl induced a rapid, dose-dependent decrease in NAc oxygen followed by a more delayed and prolonged increase in NAc glucose. Fentanyl induced similar oxygen decreases in the basolateral amygdala, indicating that brain hypoxia could be a generalized phenomenon. We used oxygen recordings in the subcutaneous space to confirm that fentanyl-induced brain hypoxia results from decreases in blood oxygen levels caused by drug-induced respiratory depression. Temperature recordings in the NAc, muscle, and skin showed that fentanyl induces biphasic changes in brain temperature, with an initial decrease that results primarily from peripheral vasodilation, and a subsequent increase driven by metabolic brain activation. The initial vasodilation appears caused by respiratory depression-induced hypoxia and a subsequent rise in CO2 that drives fentanyl-induced increases in NAc glucose. Together, these data suggest that fentanyl-induced respiratory depression triggers brain hypoxia and subsequent hyperglycemia, both of which precede slower changes in brain temperature and metabolic brain activity.
Authors: Vaccari M, Fourati S, Gordon SN, Brown DR, Bissa M, Schifanella L, Silva de Castro I, Doster MN, Galli V, Omsland M, Fujikawa D, Gorini G, Liyanage NPM, Trinh HV, McKinnon KM, Foulds KE, Keele BF, Roederer M, Koup RA, Shen X, Tomaras GD, Wong MP, Munoz KJ, Gach JS, Forthal DN, Montefiori DC, Venzon DJ, Felber BK, Rosati M, Pavlakis GN, Rao M, Sekaly RP, Franchini G
Journal: Nat Med. 2018 May 21. doi: 10.1038/s41591-018-0025-7. [Epub ahead of print]
Qualitative differences in the innate and adaptive responses elicited by different HIV vaccine candidates have not been thoroughly investigated. We tested the ability of the Aventis Pasteur live recombinant canarypox vector (ALVAC)-SIV, DNA-SIV and Ad26-SIV vaccine prime modalities together with two ALVAC-SIV + gp120 protein boosts to reduce the risk of SIVmac251 acquisition in rhesus macaques. We found that the DNA and ALVAC prime regimens were effective, but the Ad26 prime was not. The activation of hypoxia and the inflammasome in CD14+CD16- monocytes, gut-homing CCR5-negative CD4+ T helper 2 (TH2) cells and antibodies to variable region 2 correlated with a decreased risk of SIVmac251 acquisition. By contrast, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation in CD16+ monocytes was associated with an increased risk of virus acquisition. The Ad26 prime regimen induced the accumulation of CX3CR1+CD163+ macrophages in lymph nodes and of long-lasting CD4+ TH17 cells in the gut and lungs. Our data indicate that the selective engagement of monocyte subsets following a vaccine prime influences long-term immunity, uncovering an unexpected association of CD14+ innate monocytes with a reduced risk of SIVmac251 acquisition.
Authors: Kijima T, Prince TL, Tigue ML, Yim KH, Schwartz H, Beebe K, Lee S, Budzynski MA, Williams H, Trepel JB, Sistonen L, Calderwood S, Neckers L
Journal: Sci Rep. 2018 May 3;8(1):6976. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-25404-w.
Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) initiates a broad transcriptional response to proteotoxic stress while also mediating a cancer-specific transcriptional program. HSF1 is thought to be regulated by molecular chaperones, including Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90). HSP90 is proposed to sequester HSF1 in unstressed cells, but visualization of this interaction in vivo requires protein crosslinking. In this report, we show that HSP90 binding to HSF1 depends on HSP90 conformation and is only readily visualized for the ATP-dependent, N-domain dimerized chaperone, a conformation only rarely sampled by mammalian HSP90. We have used this mutationally fixed conformation to map HSP90 binding sites on HSF1. Further, we show that ATP-competitive, N-domain targeted HSP90 inhibitors disrupt this interaction, resulting in the increased duration of HSF1 occupancy of the hsp70 promoter and significant prolongation of both the constitutive and heat-induced HSF1 transcriptional activity. While our data do not support a role for HSP90 in sequestering HSF1 monomers to suppress HSF1 transcriptional activity, our findings do identify a noncanonical role for HSP90 in providing dynamic modulation of HSF1 activity by participating in removal of HSF1 trimers from heat shock elements in DNA, thus terminating the heat shock response.
Authors: Pearson CS, Mencio CP, Barber AC, Martin KR, Geller HM
Journal: Elife. 2018 May 15;7. pii: e37139. doi: 10.7554/eLife.37139. [Epub ahead of print]
The failure of mammalian CNS neurons to regenerate their axons derives from a combination of intrinsic deficits and extrinsic factors. Following injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) within the glial scar inhibit axonal regeneration, an action mediated by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of CSPGs, especially those with 4-sulfated (4S) sugars. Arylsulfatase B (ARSB) selectively cleaves 4S groups from the non-reducing ends of GAG chains without disrupting other, growth-permissive motifs. We demonstrate that ARSB is effective in reducing the inhibitory actions of CSPGs both in in vitro models of the glial scar and after optic nerve crush (ONC) in adult mice. ARSB is clinically approved for replacement therapy in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis VI and therefore represents an attractive candidate for translation to the human CNS.
Authors: Martin-Martin I, Chagas AC, Guimaraes-Costa AB, Amo L, Oliveira F, Moore IN, DeSouza-Vieira TS, Sanchez EE, Suntravat M, Valenzuela JG, Ribeiro JMC, Calvo E
Journal: PLoS Pathog. 2018 May 3;14(5):e1007006. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007006. [Epub ahead of print]
Salivary components from disease vectors help arthropods to acquire blood and have been shown to enhance pathogen transmission in different model systems. Here we show that two salivary enzymes from Lutzomyia longipalpis have a synergist effect that facilitates a more efficient blood meal intake and diffusion of other sialome components. We have previously shown that Lundep, a highly active endonuclease, enhances parasite infection and prevent blood clotting by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. To investigate the physiological role of a salivary hyaluronidase in blood feeding we cloned and expressed a recombinant hyaluronidase from Lu. longipalpis. Recombinant hyaluronidase (LuloHya) was expressed in mammalian cells and biochemically characterized in vitro. Our study showed that expression of neutrophil CXC chemokines and colony stimulating factors were upregulated in HMVEC cells after incubation with LuloHya and Lundep. These results were confirmed by the acute hemorrhage, edema and inflammation in a dermal necrosis (dermonecrotic) assay involving a massive infiltration of leukocytes, especially neutrophils, in mice co-injected with hemorrhagic factor and these two salivary proteins. Moreover, flow cytometry results showed that LuloHya and Lundep promote neutrophil recruitment to the bite site that may serve as a vehicle for establishment of Leishmania infection. A vaccination experiment demonstrated that LuloHya and Lundep confer protective immunity against cutaneous leishmaniasis using the Lu. longipalpis-Leishmania major combination as a model. Animals (C57BL/6) immunized with LuloHya or Lundep showed minimal skin damage while lesions in control animals remained ulcerated. This protective immunity was abrogated when B-cell-deficient mice were used indicating that antibodies against both proteins play a significant role for disease protection. Rabbit-raised anti-LuloHya antibodies completely abrogated hyaluronidase activity in vitro. Moreover, in vivo experiments demonstrated that blocking LuloHya with specific antibodies interferes with sand fly blood feeding. This work highlights the relevance of vector salivary components in blood feeding and parasite transmission and further suggests the inclusion of these salivary proteins as components for an anti-Leishmania vaccine.
Authors: Katki HA, Kovalchik SA, Petito LC, Cheung LC, Jacobs E, Jemal A, Berg C, Chaturvedi AK
Journal: Ann Intern Med. 2018 May 15. doi: 10.7326/M17-2701. [Epub ahead of print]
Background: Lung cancer screening guidelines recommend using individualized risk models to refer ever-smokers for screening. However, different models select different screening populations. The performance of each model in selecting ever-smokers for screening is unknown.
Objective: To compare the U.S. screening populations selected by 9 lung cancer risk models (the Bach model; the Spitz model; the Liverpool Lung Project [LLP] model; the LLP Incidence Risk Model [LLPi]; the Hoggart model; the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Model 2012 [PLCOM2012]; the Pittsburgh Predictor; the Lung Cancer Risk Assessment Tool [LCRAT]; and the Lung Cancer Death Risk Assessment Tool [LCDRAT]) and to examine their predictive performance in 2 cohorts.
Design: Population-based prospective studies.
Setting: United States.
Participants: Models selected U.S. screening populations by using data from the National Health Interview Survey from 2010 to 2012. Model performance was evaluated using data from 337 388 ever-smokers in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study and 72 338 ever-smokers in the CPS-II (Cancer Prevention Study II) Nutrition Survey cohort.
Measurements: Model calibration (ratio of model-predicted to observed cases [expected–observed ratio]) and discrimination (area under the curve [AUC]).
Results: At a 5-year risk threshold of 2.0%, the models chose U.S. screening populations ranging from 7.6 million to 26 million ever-smokers. These disagreements occurred because, in both validation cohorts, 4 models (the Bach model, PLCOM2012, LCRAT, and LCDRAT) were well-calibrated (expected–observed ratio range, 0.92 to 1.12) and had higher AUCs (range, 0.75 to 0.79) than 5 models that generally overestimated risk (expected–observed ratio range, 0.83 to 3.69) and had lower AUCs (range, 0.62 to 0.75). The 4 best-performing models also had the highest sensitivity at a fixed specificity (and vice versa) and similar discrimination at a fixed risk threshold. These models showed better agreement on size of the screening population (7.6 million to 10.9 million) and achieved consensus on 73% of persons chosen.
Limitation: No consensus on risk thresholds for screening.
Conclusion: The 9 lung cancer risk models chose widely differing U.S. screening populations. However, 4 models (the Bach model, PLCOM2012, LCRAT, and LCDRAT) most accurately predicted risk and performed best in selecting ever-smokers for screening.
Authors: Feng LR, Fernández-Martínez JL, Zaal KJM, deAndrés-Galiana EJ, Wolff BS, Saligan LN
Journal: Transl Psychiatry. 2018 May 30;8(1):110. doi: 10.1038/s41398-018-0161-3.
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common burden in cancer patients and little is known about its underlying mechanism. The primary aim of this study was to identify gene signatures predictive of post-radiotherapy fatigue in prostate cancer patients. We employed Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to identify predictive genes using whole genome microarray data from 36 men with prostate cancer. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to determine functional networks of the predictive genes. Functional validation was performed using a T lymphocyte cell line, Jurkat E6.1. Cells were pretreated with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) agonist (DHPG), antagonist (MPEP), or control (PBS) for 20 min before irradiation at 8 Gy in a Mark-1 γ-irradiator. NF-κB activation was assessed using a NF-κB/Jurkat/GFP Transcriptional Reporter Cell Line. LDA achieved 83.3% accuracy in predicting post-radiotherapy fatigue. "Glutamate receptor signaling" was the most significant (p = 0.0002) pathway among the predictive genes. Functional validation using Jurkat cells revealed clustering of mGluR5 receptors as well as increased regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) production post irradiation in cells pretreated with DHPG, whereas inhibition of mGluR5 activity with MPEP decreased RANTES concentration after irradiation. DHPG pretreatment amplified irradiation-induced NF-κB activation suggesting a role of mGluR5 in modulating T cell activation after irradiation. These results suggest that mGluR5 signaling in T cells may play a key role in the development of chronic inflammation resulting in fatigue and contribute to individual differences in immune responses to radiation. Moreover, modulating mGluR5 provides a novel therapeutic option to treat CRF.
Authors: Amita H, Kim HF, Smith M, Gopal A, Hikosaka O
Journal: Eur J Neurosci. 2018 May 8. doi: 10.1111/ejn.13936. [Epub ahead of print]
Direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia work together for controlling behavior. However, it is still a controversial topic whether these pathways are segregated or merged with each other. To address this issue, we studied the connections of these two pathways in the caudal parts of the basal ganglia of rhesus monkeys using anatomical tracers. Our previous studies showed that the caudal basal ganglia control saccades by conveying long-term values (stable values) of many visual objects toward the superior colliculus. In experiment 1, we injected a tracer in the caudate tail (CDt), and found local dense plexuses of axon terminals in the caudal-dorsal-lateral part of substantia nigra pars reticulata (cdlSNr) and the caudal-ventral part of globus pallidus externus (cvGPe). These anterograde projections may correspond to the direct and indirect pathways, respectively. To verify this in experiment 2, we injected different tracers into cdlSNr and cvGPe, and found many retrogradely labeled neurons in CDt and, in addition, the caudal-ventral part of the putamen (cvPut). These cdlSNr-projecting and cvGPe-projecting neurons were found intermingled in both CDt and cvPut (which we call 'striatum tail'). A small but significant proportion of neurons (< 15%) were double-labeled, indicating that they projected to both cdlSNr and cvGPe. These anatomical results suggest that stable value signals (good vs. bad) are sent from the striatum tail to cdlSNr and cvGPe in a biased (but not exclusive) manner. These connections may play an important role in biasing saccades toward higher-valued objects and away from lower-valued objects.
Authors: Begaye B, Piaggi P, Thearle MS, Haskie K, Walter M, Schlögl M, Bonfiglio S, Krakoff J, Vinales KL
Journal: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 May 16. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-00387. [Epub ahead of print]
CONTEXT: In healthy adults with detectable cold-induced brown fat activation (CIBA), the relationships between sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or thyroid activity during energy balance (EBL) with CIBA and body composition change are undetermined.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between CIBA and thermoneutral catecholamines and thyroid hormones measured during EBL and to determine if CIBA, catecholamines, or thyroid hormones predict body composition changes.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Twelve healthy volunteers (7M/5F) with positive CIBA (>2 standardized uptake value (g/mL)) had 24-h energy expenditure (24hEE) assessed during EBL via whole-room indirect calorimetry while residing on a clinical research unit. Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography scans were performed after exposure to 16°C for 2h to quantify CIBA.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CIBA, 24hEE during EBL and thermoneutrality with concomitant measurement of urinary catecholamines and plasma free T3 (fT3) and free t4 (fT4). Body composition at baseline and six months by DXA.
RESULTS: Lower urinary norepinephrine and fT4 were associated with higher CIBA (r = ‒0.65, p = 0.03 and r = ‒0.75, p<0.01, respectively), but CIBA was not associated with 24hEE at thermoneutrality (p=0.77). Lower CIBA (β = ̶̶ 3.5 kg/SUV, p<0.01) predicted fat mass gain; whereas, higher urinary norepinephrine and fT4 predicted future fat mass gain at 6 months (β = 3.0 kg per two-fold difference in norepinephrine, p=0.03; β = 1.2 kg per 0.1 ng/dL difference in fT4, p=0.03, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Lower SNS and free thyroid measurements at baseline indicate a greater capacity for CIBA, which may be predictive against fat mass gain.
Authors: Basuli F, Zhang X, Williams MR, Seidel J, Green MV, Choyke PL, Swenson RE, Jagoda EM
Journal: Nucl Med Biol. 2018 May 30;62-63:63-70. doi: 10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2018.05.004. [Epub ahead of print]
INTRODUCTION: Equilibrium single-photon radionuclide imaging methods for assessing cardiac function and the integrity of the vascular system have long been in use for both clinical and research purposes. However, positron-emitting blood pool agents that could provide PET equivalents to these (and other) clinical procedures have not yet been adopted despite technical imaging advantages offered by PET. Our goal was to develop a PET blood pool tracer that not only meets necessary in vivo biological requirements but can be produced with an uncomplicated and rapid synthesis method which would facilitate clinical translation. Herein, albumin labeled with fluorine-18 was synthesized using a one-pot method and evaluated in vitro and in vivo in rats.
METHODS: A ligand (NODA-Bz-TFPE), containing NODA attached to a tetrafluorophenylester (TFPE) via a phenyl linker (Bz), was labeled with aluminum fluoride (Al[18F]F). Conjugation of the serum albumin with the ligand (Al[18F]F-NODA-Bz-TFPE), followed by purification (size exclusion chromatography), yielded the final product (Al[18F]F-NODA-Bz-RSA/HSA). In vitro stability was evaluated in human serum albumin by HPLC. Rat biodistributions and whole-body PET imaging over a 4 h time course were used for the in vivo evaluation.
RESULTS: This synthesis exhibited an overall radiochemical yield of 45 ± 10% (n = 30), a 50-min radiolabeling time, a radiochemical purity >99% and apparent stability up to 4 h in human serum. Blood had the highest retention of Al[18F]F-NODA-Bz-RSA at all times with a blood half-life of 5.2 h in rats. Al[18F]F-NODA-Bz-RSA distribution in most rat tissues remained relatively constant for up to 1 h, indicating that the tissue radioactivity content represents the respective tissue plasma volume. Dynamic whole-body PET images were in agreement with these findings.
CONCLUSIONS: A new ligand has been developed and radiolabeled with Al[18F]F that allows rapid (50-min) preparation of fluorine-18 serum albumin in one-pot. In addition to increased synthetic efficiency, the construct appears to be metabolically stable in rats. This method could encourage wider use of PET to quantify cardiac function and tissue vascular integrity in both research and clinical settings.