Authors: Vullhorst D, Ahmad T, Karavanova I, Keating C, Buonanno A
Journal: J Neurosci. 2017 May 24;37(21):5232-5249. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2630-16.2017.
The Neuregulin (NRG) family of ErbB ligands is comprised of numerous variants originating from the use of different genes, alternative promoters, and splice variants. NRGs have generally been thought to be transported to axons and presynaptic terminals where they signal via ErbB3/4 receptors in paracrine or juxtacrine mode. However, we recently demonstrated that unprocessed pro-NRG2 accumulates on cell bodies and proximal dendrites, and that NMDAR activity is required for shedding of its ectodomain by metalloproteinases. Here we systematically investigated the subcellular distribution and processing of major NRG isoforms in rat hippocampal neurons. We show that NRG1 isotypes I and II, which like NRG2 are single-pass transmembrane proteins with an Ig-like domain, share the same subcellular distribution and ectodomain shedding properties. We furthermore show that NRG3, like CRD-NRG1, is a dual-pass transmembrane protein that harbors a second transmembrane domain near its amino terminus. Both NRG3 and CRD-NRG1 cluster on axons through juxtacrine interactions with ErbB4 present on GABAergic interneurons. Interestingly, although single-pass NRGs accumulate as unprocessed proforms, axonal puncta of CRD-NRG1 and NRG3 are comprised of processed protein. Mutations of CRD-NRG1 and NRG3 that render them resistant to BACE cleavage, as well as BACE inhibition, result in the loss of axonal puncta and in the accumulation of unprocessed proforms in neuronal soma. Together, these results define two groups of NRGs with distinct membrane topologies and fundamentally different targeting and processing properties in central neurons. The implications of this functional diversity for the regulation of neuronal processes by the NRG/ErbB pathway are discussed.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Numerous Neuregulins (NRGs) are generated through the use of different genes, promoters, and alternative splicing, but the functional significance of this evolutionary conserved diversity remains poorly understood. Here we show that NRGs can be categorized by their membrane topologies. Single-pass NRGs, such as NRG1 Types I/II and NRG2, accumulate as unprocessed proforms on cell bodies, and their ectodomains are shed by metalloproteinases in response to NMDA receptor activation. By contrast, dual-pass CRD-NRG1 and NRG3 are constitutively processed by BACE and accumulate on axons where they interact with ErbB4 in juxtacrine mode. These findings reveal a previously unknown functional relationship between membrane topology, protein processing, and subcellulardistribution, and suggest that single- and dual-pass NRGs regulate neuronal functions in fundamentally different ways.
Authors: Aid M, Abbink P, Larocca RA, Boyd M, Nityanandam R, Nanayakkara O, Martinot AJ, Moseley ET, Blass E, Borducchi EN, Chandrashekar A, Brinkman AL, Molloy K, Jetton D, Tartaglia LJ, Liu J, Best K, Perelson AS, De La Barrera RA, Lewis MG, Barouch DH
Journal: Cell. 2017 May 4;169(4):610-620.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.04.008
Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with severe neuropathology in neonates as well as Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurologic disorders in adults. Prolonged viral shedding has been reported in semen, suggesting the presence of anatomic viral reservoirs. Here we show that ZIKV can persist in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and lymph nodes (LN) of infected rhesus monkeys for weeks after virus has been cleared from peripheral blood, urine, and mucosal secretions. ZIKV-specific neutralizing antibodies correlated with rapid clearance of virus in peripheral blood but remained undetectable in CSF for the duration of the study. Viral persistence in both CSF and LN correlated with upregulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), proinflammatory, and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways, as well as downregulation of extracellular matrix signaling pathways. These data raise the possibility that persistent or occult neurologic and lymphoid disease may occur following clearance of peripheral virus in ZIKV-infected individuals.
Authors: Galanternik MV, Castranova D, Gore AV, Blewett NH, Jung HM, Stratman AN, Kirby MR, Iben J, Miller MF, Kawakami K, Maraia RJ, Weinstein BM
Journal: Elife. 2017 Apr 11;6. pii: e24369. doi: 10.7554/eLife.24369.
The blood-brain barrier is essential for the proper homeostasis and function of the CNS, but its mechanism of function is poorly understood. Perivascular cells surrounding brain blood vessels are thought to be important for blood-brain barrier establishment, but their roles are not well defined. Here, we describe a novel perivascular cell population closely associated with blood vessels on the zebrafish brain. Based on similarities in their morphology, location, and scavenger behavior, these cells appear to be the zebrafishequivalent of cells variably characterized as Fluorescent Granular Perithelial cells (FGPs), perivascular macrophages, or 'Mato Cells' in mammals. Despite their macrophage-like morphology and perivascular location, zebrafish FGPs appear molecularly most similar to lymphatic endothelium, and our imaging studies suggest that these cells emerge by differentiation from endothelium of the optic choroidal vascular plexus. Our findings provide the first report of a perivascular cell population in the brain derived from vascular endothelium.
Authors: Maio N, Kim KS, Singh A, Rouault TA
Journal: Cell Metab. 2017 Apr 4;25(4):945-953.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.03.010.
The iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster of the Rieske protein, UQCRFS1, is essential for Complex III (CIII) activity, though the mechanism for Fe-S cluster transfer has not previously been elucidated. Recent studies have shown that the co-chaperone HSC20, essential for Fe-S cluster biogenesis of SDHB, directly binds LYRM7, formerly described as a chaperone that stabilizes UQCRFS1 prior to its insertion into CIII. Here we report that a transient subcomplex involved in CIII assembly, composed of LYRM7 bound to UQCRFS1, interacts with components of an Fe-S transfer complex, consisting of HSC20, its cognate chaperone HSPA9, and the holo-scaffold ISCU. Binding of HSC20 to the LYR motif of LYRM7 in a pre-assembled UQCRFS1-LYRM7 intermediate in the mitochondrial matrix facilitates Fe-S cluster transfer to UQCRFS1. The five Fe-S cluster subunits of Complex I also interact with HSC20 to acquire their clusters, highlighting the crucial role of HSC20 in the assembly of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
Authors: Sochacki KA, Dickey AM, Strub MP, Taraska JW
Journal: Nat Cell Biol. 2017 Mar 27. doi: 10.1038/ncb3498.
Dozens of proteins capture, polymerize and reshape the clathrin lattice during clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). How or if this ensemble of proteins is organized in relation to the clathrin coat is unknown. Here, we map key molecules involved in CME at the nanoscale using correlative super-resolution light and transmission electron microscopy. We localize 19 different endocytic proteins (amphiphysin1, AP2, β2-arrestin, CALM, clathrin, DAB2, dynamin2, EPS15, epsin1, epsin2, FCHO2, HIP1R, intersectin, NECAP, SNX9, stonin2, syndapin2, transferrin receptor, VAMP2) on thousands of individual clathrin structures, generating a comprehensive molecular architecture of endocytosis with nanoscale precision. We discover that endocytic proteins distribute into distinct spatial zones in relation to the edge of the clathrin lattice. The presence or concentrations of proteins within these zones vary at distinct stages of organelle development. We propose that endocytosis is driven by the recruitment, reorganization and loss of proteins within these partitioned nanoscale zones.
Authors: Zapata A, Hwang EK, Lupica CR
Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Apr;42(5):1103-1112. doi: 10.1038/npp.2016.286
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a brain structure receiving inputs from limbic forebrain areas and innervating major midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. Evidence indicates LHb involvement in sleep control, reward-based decision making, avoidance of punishment, and responses to stress. Additional work has established that the LHb mediates negative feedback in response to aversive events. As a hallmark of drug addiction is the inability to limit drug use despite negative consequences, we hypothesize that LHb dysfunction may have a role in the lack of control over drug seeking. Here we examine the effects of LHb inactivation in control over drug seeking in several cocaine self-administration (SA) paradigms in rats. We find that inhibition of the LHb with GABAergic agonists did not alter cocaine SA under progressive ratio or seeking/taking chained reinforcement schedules, or during punishment-induced suppression of cocaine-reinforced responding. In contrast, LHb inhibition increased cocaine seeking when the drug was not available in rats trained to discriminate its presence using an environmental cue. This effect of LHb inhibition was selective for cocaine, as it did not impair responding for sucrose reinforcement. The effect of LHb injection of GABA agonists was mimicked by intra-LHb muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) antagonist injection, and activation of mACh receptors excited a majority of LHb neurons in in vitro electrophysiology experiments. These results indicate that the LHb participates in the suppression of impulsive responding for cocaine through the activation of a cholinergic circuit, and they suggest that LHb dysfunction may contribute to impaired impulse control associated with drug addiction.
Authors: Kash JC, Walters KA, Kindrachuk J, Baxter D, Scherler K, Janosko KB, Adams RD, Herbert AS, James RM, Stonier SW, Memoli MJ, Dye JM, Davey RT Jr, Chertow DS, Taubenberger JK
Journal: Sci Transl Med. 2017 Apr 12;9(385). pii: eaai9321. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aai9321.
The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapies. We report a detailed study of host gene expression as measured by microarray in daily peripheral blood samples collected from a patient with severe Ebola virus disease. This individual was provided with supportive care without experimental therapies at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center from before onset of critical illness to recovery. Pearson analysis of daily gene expression signatures revealed marked gene expression changes in peripheral bloodleukocytes that correlated with changes in serum and peripheral blood leukocytes, viral load, antibody responses, coagulopathy, multiple organ dysfunction, and then recovery. This study revealed marked shifts in immune and antiviral responses that preceded changes in medical condition, indicating that clearance of replicating Ebola virus from peripheral blood leukocytes is likely important for systemic viral clearance.
Authors: Gryder BE, Yohe ME, Chou HC, Zhang X, Marques J, Wachtel M, Schaefer B, Sen N, Song YK, Gualtieri A, Pomella S, Rota R, Cleveland A, Wen X, Sindiri S, Wei JS, Barr FG, Das S, Andresson T, Guha R, Lal-Nag M, Ferrer M, Shern JF, Zhao K, Thomas CJ, Khan J.
Journal: Cancer Discov. 2017 Apr 26. pii: CD-16-1297. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-16-1297. [Epub ahead of print]
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is a life-threatening myogenic cancer of children and adolescent young adults, driven primarily by the chimeric transcription factor PAX3-FOXO1 (P3F). The mechanisms by which P3F dysregulates chromatin are unknown. We find P3F reprograms the cis-regulatory landscape by inducing (de novo) super enhancers (SEs). P3F uses SEs to setup auto-regulatory loops in collaboration with master transcription factors MYOG, MYOD and MYCN. This myogenic SE circuitry is consistent across cell lines and primary tumors. Cells harboring the fusion gene are selectively sensitive to small molecule inhibition of protein targets induced by, or bound to, PAX3-FOXO1 occupied SEs. Furthermore, P3F recruits and requires BET bromodomain protein BRD4 to function at SEs, resulting in a complete dependence on BRD4 and a significant susceptibility to BRD inhibition. These results yield novel insights into the epigenetic functions of P3F, and reveal a specific vulnerability that can be exploited for precision therapy.
Authors: Glancy B, Hartnell LM, Combs CA, Fenmou A, Sun J, Murphy E, Subramaniam S, Balaban RS
Journal: Cell Rep. 2017 Apr 18;19(3):487-496. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.03.063.
Mitochondrial network connectivity enables rapid communication and distribution of potential energy throughout the cell. However, this connectivity puts the energy conversion system at risk, because damaged elements could jeopardize the entire network. Here, we demonstrate the mechanisms for mitochondrial network protection in heart and skeletal muscle (SKM). We find that the cardiac mitochondrial reticulum is segmented into subnetworks comprising many mitochondria linked through abundant contact sites at highly specific intermitochondrial junctions (IMJs). In both cardiac and SKM subnetworks, a rapid electrical and physical separation of malfunctioning mitochondria occurs, consistent with detachment of IMJs and retraction of elongated mitochondria into condensed structures. Regional mitochondrial subnetworks limit the cellular impact of local dysfunction while the dynamic disconnection of damaged mitochondria allows the remaining mitochondria to resume normal function within seconds. Thus, mitochondrial network security is comprised of both proactive and reactive mechanisms in striated muscle cells.
Authors: Farías GG, Guardia CM, De Pace R, Britt DJ, Bonifacino JS.
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Mar 20. pii: 201616363. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1616363114.
The ability of lysosomes to move within the cytoplasm is important for many cellular functions. This ability is particularly critical in neurons, which comprise vast, highly differentiated domains such as the axon and dendrites. The mechanisms that control lysosome movement in these domains, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that an ensemble of BORC, Arl8, SKIP, and kinesin-1, previously shown to mediate centrifugal transport of lysosomes in nonneuronal cells, specifically drives lysosome transport into the axon, and not the dendrites, in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. This transport is essential for maintenance of axonal growth-cone dynamics and autophagosome turnover. Our findings illustrate how a general mechanism for lysosome dispersal in nonneuronal cells is adapted to drive polarized transport in neurons, and emphasize the importance of this mechanism for critical axonal processes.