Authors: Sudre G, Choudhuri S, Szekely E, Bonner T, Goduni E, Sharp W, Shaw P
Journal: JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 Nov 16. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.3072
IMPORTANCE: Despite its high heritability, few risk genes have been identified for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Brain-based phenotypes could aid gene discovery. There is a myriad of structural and functional connections that support cognition. Disruption of such connectivity is a key pathophysiologic mechanism for ADHD, and identifying heritable phenotypes within these connections could provide candidates for genomic studies.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the structural and functional connections that are heritable and pertinent to ADHD.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Members of extended multigenerational families enriched for ADHD were evaluated. Structuralconnectivity was defined by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of white matter tract microstructure and functional connectivity through resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Heritability and association with ADHD symptoms were estimated in 24 extended multigenerational families enriched for ADHD (305 members with clinical phenotyping, 213 with DTI, and 193 with rsfMRI data). Findings were confirmed in 52 nuclear families (132 members with clinical phenotypes, 119 with DTI, and 84 with rsfMRI). The study and data analysis were conducted from April 1, 2010, to September 1, 2016.
RESULTS: In the 52 nuclear families, 86 individuals (65.2%) were male and the mean (SD) age at imaging was 20.9 (15.0) years; in the 24 multigenerational extended families, 145 individuals (47.5%) were male and mean age at imaging was 30.4 (19.7) years. Microstructural properties of white matter tracts connecting ipsilateral cortical regions and the corpus callosum were significantly heritable, ranging from total additive genetic heritability (h2) = 0.69 (SE, 0.13; P = .0000002) for radial diffusivity of the right superior longitudinal fasciculus to h2 = 0.46 (SE, 0.15; P = .0009) for fractional anisotropy of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Association with ADHD symptoms was found in several tracts, most strongly for the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (t = -3.05; P = .003). Heritable patterns of functional connectivity were detected within the default mode (h2 = 0.36; SE, 0.16; cluster level significance, P < .002), cognitive control (h2 = 0.32; SE, 0.15; P < .002), and ventral attention networks (h2 = 0.36; SE, 0.16; P < .002). In all cases, subregions within each network showed heritable functional connectivity with the rest of that network. More symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (t = -2.63; P = .008) and inattention (t = -2.34; P = .02) were associated with decreased functional connectivitywithin the default mode network. Some cross-modal correlations were purely phenotypic, such as that between axial diffusivity of the right superior longitudinal fasciculus and heritable aspects of the default mode network (phenotypic correlation, ρp = -0.12; P = .03). A genetic cross-modal correlation was seen between the ventral attention network and radial diffusivity of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (genetic correlation, ρg = -0.45, P = .02).
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of data on multigenerational extended and nuclear families identified the features of structural and functionalconnectivity that are both significantly heritable and associated with ADHD. In addition, shared genetic factors account for some phenotypic correlations between functional and structural connections. Such work helps to prioritize the facets of the brain's connectivityfor future genomic studies.
Authors: Lui JC, Garrison P, Nguyen Q, Ad M, Keembiyehetty C, Chen W, Jee YH, Landman E, Nilsson O, Barnes KM, Baron J
Journal: Nat Commun. 2016 Nov 29;7:13685. doi: 10.1038/ncomms13685.
Histone methyltransferases EZH1 and EZH2 catalyse the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27), which serves as an epigenetic signal for chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression. Genome-wide associated studies have implicated EZH2 in the control of height and mutations in EZH2 cause Weaver syndrome, which includes skeletal overgrowth. Here we show that the combined loss of Ezh1 and Ezh2 in chondrocytes severely impairs skeletal growth in mice. Both of the principal processes underlying growth plate chondrogenesis, chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy, are compromised. The decrease in chondrocyte proliferation is due in part to derepression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors Ink4a/b, while ineffective chondrocyte hypertrophy is due to the suppression of IGF signalling by the increased expression of IGF-binding proteins. Collectively, our findings reveal a critical role for H3K27 methylation in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy in the growth plate, which are the central determinants of skeletal growth.
Authors: Huang J, Kang BH, Ishida E, Zhou T, Griesman T, Sheng Z, Wu F, Doria-Rose NA, Zhang B, McKee K, O'Dell S, Chuang GY, Druz A, Georgiev IS, Schramm CA, Zheng A, Joyce MG, Asokan M, Ransier A, Darko S, Migueles SA, Bailer RT, Louder MK, Alam SM, Parks R, Kelsoe G, Von Holle T, Haynes BF, Douek DC, Hirsch V, Seaman MS, Shapiro L, Mascola JR, Kwong PD, Connors M
Journal: Immunity. 2016 Nov 15;45(5):1108-1121. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.10.027
Detailed studies of the broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that underlie the best available examples of the humoral immune response to HIV are providing important information for the development of therapies and prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection. Here, we report a CD4-bindingsite (CD4bs) antibody, named N6, that potently neutralized 98% of HIV-1 isolates, including 16 of 20 that were resistant to other members of its class. N6 evolved a mode of recognition such that its binding was not impacted by the loss of individual contacts across the immunoglobulin heavy chain. In addition, structural analysis revealed that the orientation of N6 permitted it to avoid steric clashes with glycans, which is a common mechanism of resistance. Thus, an HIV-1-specific bNAb can achieve potent, near-pan neutralization of HIV-1, making it an attractive candidate for use in therapy and prophylaxis.
Authors: Bennuru S, Cotton JA, Ribeiro JM, Grote A, Harsha B, Holroyd N, Mhashilkar A, Molina DM, Randall AZ, Shandling AD, Unnasch TR, Ghedin E, Berriman M, Lustigman S, Nutman TB
Journal: MBio. 2016 Nov 23;7(6). pii: e02028-16. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02028-16.
Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a neglected tropical disease that has been successfully targeted by mass drug treatment programs in the Americas and small parts of Africa. Achieving the long-term goal of elimination of onchocerciasis, however, requires additional tools, including drugs, vaccines, and biomarkers of infection. Here, we describe the transcriptome and proteome profiles of the major vector and the human host stages (L1, L2, L3, molting L3, L4, adult male, and adult female) of Onchocerca volvulus along with the proteome of each parasitic stage and of its Wolbachia endosymbiont (wOv). In so doing, we have identified stage-specific pathways important to the parasite's adaptation to its human host during its early development. Further, we generated a protein array that, when screened with well-characterized human samples, identified novel diagnostic biomarkers of O. volvulus infection and new potential vaccine candidates. This immunomic approach not only demonstrates the power of this postgenomic discovery platform but also provides additional tools for onchocerciasis control programs.
IMPORTANCE: The global onchocerciasis (river blindness) elimination program will have to rely on the development of new tools (drugs, vaccines, biomarkers) to achieve its goals by 2025. As an adjunct to the completed genomic sequencing of O. volvulus, we used a comprehensive proteomic and transcriptomic profiling strategy to gain a comprehensive understanding of both the vector-derived and human host-derived parasite stages. In so doing, we have identified proteins and pathways that enable novel drug targeting studies and the discovery of novel vaccine candidates, as well as useful biomarkers of active infection.
Authors: Lu Y, Biancotto A, Cheung F, Remmers E, Shah N, McCoy JP, Tsang JS
Journal: Immunity. 2016 Nov 15;45(5):1162-1175. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.10.025
Cell-to-cell expression variation (CEV) is a prevalent feature of even well-defined cell populations, but its functions, particularly at the organismal level, are not well understood. Using single-cell data obtained via high-dimensional flow cytometry of T cells as a model, we introduce an analysis framework for quantifying CEV in primary cell populations and studying its functional associations in human cohorts. Analyses of 840 CEV phenotypes spanning multiple baseline measurements of 14 proteins in 28 T cell subpopulations suggest that the quantitative extent of CEV can exhibit substantial subject-to-subject differences and yet remain stable within healthy individuals over months. We linked CEV to age and disease-associated genetic polymorphisms, thus implicating CEV as a biomarker of aging and disease susceptibility and suggesting that it might play an important role in health and disease. Our dataset, interactive figures, and software for computing CEV with flow cytometry data provide a resource for exploring CEV functions.
Authors: Ogburn RN, Randall TA, Xu Y, Roberts JH, Mebrahtu B, Karnuta JM, Rider SD, Kissling GE, London RE, Pomés A, Arlian L, Fitzgerald MC, Mueller GA
Journal: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Oct 13. pii: S0091-6749(16)30963-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.08.016. [Epub ahead of print]
Letter to the Editor
Authors: Gierach GL, Curtis RE, Pfeiffer RM, Mullooly M, Ntowe EA, Hoover RN, Nyante SJ, Feigelson HS, Glass AG, Berrington de Gonzalez A
Journal: JAMA Oncol. 2016 Oct 6. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.3340. [Epub ahead of print]
IMPORTANCE: Within 10 years after breast cancer diagnosis, roughly 5% of patients develop contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Randomized trials have found that therapy including tamoxifen citrate and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) reduces CBC risk. But little is known about the magnitude and duration of protective associations within the context of real-world clinical management settings, where varying durations of and gaps in treatment are common.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between adjuvant tamoxifen and AI therapy and CBC risk within a general community setting.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective cohort study of CBC risk among 7541 patients diagnosed with a first primary unilateral invasive breast cancer at Kaiser Permanente Institute for Health Research (Colorado) or Kaiser Permanente Northwest Center for Health Research (Oregon) between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2008. Data were analyzed from 1 year after diagnosis of the first breast cancer through the earliest of the following events: CBC diagnosis, other second cancer diagnosis, death, last tumor registry follow-up, exit from the Kaiser Permanente health care plan, or end of study follow-up (December 31, 2010, for Oregon and December 31, 2011, for Colorado).
EXPOSURES: Adjuvant tamoxifen use and AI therapy were treated as time-dependent exposures, assessed using electronic prescription records.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Incident CBC based on long-term systematic follow-up.
RESULTS: Among 7541 women with invasive breast cancer, median age at initial breast cancer diagnosis was 60.6 years (age range, 24.9-84.9 years). Women were predominantly (92.9% [7009 of 7541]) of white race. During a median of 6.3 years (range, 1-20.9 years) of follow-up, 248 women developed CBC (45 in situ and 203 invasive). Contralateral breast cancer risk decreased significantly with increasing tamoxifen therapy duration. In current users, the relative risk (RR) per year of tamoxifen use was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.64-0.89), with an estimated 66% (RR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.29-0.40) RR reduction for 4 years of use compared with nonusers. Risk reductions were slightly smaller for past users but were still significant at least 5 years after stopping tamoxifen therapy (RR per year of use, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.71-0.995). In addition, AI use without tamoxifen therapy was associated with reduced CBC risk (RR for AI users compared with nonusers, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.22-0.97). Risk reductions were most apparent among women whose primary and CBCs were estrogen receptor positive.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Tamoxifen therapy was associated with reduced CBC risk during treatment and after its cessation, with risk progressively decreasing as tamoxifen therapy duration increased. Among those surviving at least 5 years, tamoxifen use for at least 4 years was estimated to prevent 3 CBCs per 100 women by 10 years after an estrogen receptor-positive first breast cancer, an absolute risk reduction that is consistent with findings from clinical trials. If adjuvant endocrine therapy is indicated for breast cancer treatment, these findings in concert with trial data suggest that women should be encouraged to complete the full course.
Authors: Burnett CJ, Li C, Webber E, Tsaousidou E, Xue SY, Brüning JC, Krashes MJ
Journal: Neuron. 2016 Oct 5;92(1):187-201. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.08.032.
Behavioral choice is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom and is central to goal-oriented behavior. Hypothalamic Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons are critical regulators of appetite. Hungry animals, bombarded by multiple sensory stimuli, are known to modify their behavior during times of caloric need, rapidly adapting to a consistently changing environment. Utilizing ARCAgRP neurons as an entry point, we analyzed the hierarchical position of hunger related to rival drive states. Employing a battery of behavioral assays, we found that hunger significantly increases its capacity to suppress competing motivational systems, such as thirst, anxiety-related behavior, innate fear, and social interactions, often only when food is accessible. Furthermore, real-time monitoring of ARCAgRP activity revealed time-locked responses to conspecific investigation in addition to food presentation, further establishing that, even at the level of ARCAgRP neurons, choices are remarkably flexible computations, integrating internal state, external factors, and anticipated yield.
Authors: Zhang J, McCann KL, Qiu C, Gonzalez LE, Baserga SJ, Hall TM.
Journal: Nat Commun. 2016 Oct 11;7:13085. doi: 10.1038/ncomms13085.
Numerous factors direct eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, and defects in a single ribosome assembly factor may be lethal or produce tissue-specific human ribosomopathies. Pre-ribosomal RNAs (pre-rRNAs) must be processed stepwise and at the correct subcellular locations to produce the mature rRNAs. Nop9 is a conserved small ribosomal subunit biogenesis factor, essential in yeast. Here we report a 2.1-Å crystal structure of Nop9 and a small-angle X-ray-scattering model of a Nop9:RNA complex that reveals a 'C'-shaped fold formed from 11 Pumilio repeats. We show that Nop9 recognizes sequence and structural features of the 20S pre-rRNA near the cleavage site of the nuclease, Nob1. We further demonstrate that Nop9 inhibits Nob1 cleavage, the final processing step to produce mature small ribosomal subunit 18S rRNA. Together, our results suggest that Nop9 is critical for timely cleavage of the 20S pre-rRNA. Moreover, the Nop9 structure exemplifies a new class of Pumilio repeat proteins.
Authors: Byrareddy SN, Arthos J, Cicala C, Villinger F, Ortiz KT, Little D, Sidell N, Kane MA, Yu J, Jones JW, Santangelo PJ, Zurla C, McKinnon LR, Arnold KB, Woody CE, Walter L, Roos C, Noll A, Van Ryk D, Jelicic K, Cimbro R, Gumber S, Reid MD, Adsay V, Amancha PK, Mayne AE, Parslow TG, Fauci AS, Ansari AA
Journal: Science. 2016 Oct 14;354(6309):197-202.
Antiretroviral drug therapy (ART) effectively suppresses replication of both the immunodeficiency viruses, human (HIV) and simian (SIV); however, virus rebounds soon after ART is withdrawn. SIV-infected monkeys were treated with a 90-day course of ART initiated at 5 weeks post infection followed at 9 weeks post infection by infusions of a primatized monoclonal antibody against the α4β7 integrin administered every 3 weeks until week 32. These animals subsequently maintained low to undetectable viral loads and normal CD4+ T cell counts in plasma and gastrointestinal tissues for more than 9 months, even after all treatment was withdrawn. This combination therapy allows macaques to effectively control viremia and reconstitute their immune systems without a need for further therapy.