Authors: Nagi SS, Marshall AG, Makdani A, Jarocka E, Liljencrantz J, Ridderström M, Shaikh S, O'Neill F, Saade D, Donkervoort S, Foley AR, Minde J, Trulsson M, Cole J, Bönnemann CG, Chesler AT, Bushnell MC, McGlone F, Olausson H
Journal: Sci Adv. 2019 Jul 3;5(7):eaaw1297. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw1297. eCollection 2019 Jul.
The canonical view is that touch is signaled by fast-conducting, thickly myelinated afferents, whereas pain is signaled by slow-conducting, thinly myelinated ("fast" pain) or unmyelinated ("slow" pain) afferents. While other mammals have thickly myelinated afferents signaling pain (ultrafast nociceptors), these have not been demonstrated in humans. Here, we performed single-unit axonal recordings (microneurography) from cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents in healthy participants. We identified A-fiber high-threshold mechanoreceptors (A-HTMRs) that were insensitive to gentle touch, encoded noxious skin indentations, and displayed conduction velocities similar to A-fiber low-threshold mechanoreceptors. Intraneural electrical stimulation of single ultrafast A-HTMRs evoked painful percepts. Testing in patients with selective deafferentation revealed impaired pain judgments to graded mechanical stimuli only when thickly myelinated fibers were absent. This function was preserved in patients with a loss-of-function mutation in mechanotransduction channel PIEZO2. These findings demonstrate that human mechanical pain does not require PIEZO2 and can be signaled by fast-conducting, thickly myelinated afferents.
Authors: Xia L, Gildersleeve JC
Journal: PLoS One. 2019 Jul 31;14(7):e0218575. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218575. eCollection 2019.
Natural antibodies are an innate-like subset of serum antibodies involved in host defense, tumor surveillance, homeostasis, and autoimmunity. Defining the natural antibody repertoire is critical for identifying biomarkers, developing vaccines, controlling and preventing autoimmunity, and understanding the development and organization of the immune system. While natural antibodies to protein antigens have been studied in depth, little is known about natural antibodies to carbohydrate antigens. To address this, we profiled IgM from umbilical cord blood and matched maternal sera on a glycan microarray. Since standard methods to detect maternal contamination in cord serum did not have sufficient sensitivity for our study, we developed a highly sensitive microarray-based assay. Using this method, we found that over 50% of the cord samples had unacceptable levels of maternal contamination. For the cord samples with high purity, anti-glycan IgM antibodies were prevalent and recognized a broad range of non-human and human glycans. Using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering, cord IgM repertoires showed a high degree of similarity with each other but were distinct from maternal IgM repertoires. Our results demonstrate that many anti-glycan antibodies in human serum are natural antibodies and provide new insights into the development of anti-glycan antibody repertoires.
Authors: Landgren O, Hofmann JN, McShane CM, Santo L, Hultcrantz M, Korde N, Mailankody S, Kazandjian D, Murata K, Thoren K, Ramanathan L, Dogan A, Rustad E, Lu SX, Akhlaghi T, Kristinsson SY, Björkholm M, Devlin S, Purdue MP, Pfeiffer RM, Turesson I
Journal: JAMA Oncol. 2019 Jul 18. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.1568. [Epub ahead of print]
IMPORTANCE: Multiple myeloma is consistently preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Risk models that estimate the risk of progression from MGUS to multiple myeloma use data from a single time point, usually the initial workup.
OBJECTIVE: To longitudinally investigate the alterations of serum immune markers with stable vs progressive MGUS.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This prospective cross-sectional cohort study included 77 469 adult participants aged 55 to 74 years in the screening arm of the National Cancer Institute Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial who had a diagnosis of progressing MGUS (n = 187) or stable MGUS (n = 498), including light-chain subtype, from November 1993, through December 2011. For each participant, all available serially stored prediagnostic serum samples (N = 3266) were obtained. Data analysis was performed from April 2018, to December 2018.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Serum protein and monoclonal immunoglobulin levels, serum free light chains, and serum light chains within each immunoglobulin class were measured.
RESULTS: Of 685 individuals included in the study, 461 (67.3%) were men; the mean (SD) age was 69.1 (5.6) years. In cross-sectional modeling, risk factors associated with progressive MGUS were IgA isotype (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.03-3.13; P = .04), 15 g/L or more monoclonal spike (adjusted OR, 23.5; 95% CI, 8.9-61.9; P < .001), skewed (<0.1 or >10) serum free light chains ratio (adjusted OR, 46.4; 95% CI, 18.4-117.0; P < .001), and severe immunoparesis (≥2 suppressed uninvolved immunoglobulins) (adjusted OR, 19.1; 95% Cl, 7.5-48.3; P < .001). Risk factors associated with progressive light-chain MGUS were skewed serum free light chains ratio (adjusted OR, 44.0; 95% CI, 14.2-136.3; P < .001) and severe immunoparesis (adjusted OR, 48.6; 95% CI, 9.5-248.2; P < .001). In longitudinal analysis of participants with serial samples prior to progression, 23 of 43 participants (53%) had high-risk MGUS before progression; 16 of these 23 (70%) experienced conversion from low-risk or intermediate-risk MGUS within 5 years. Similar results were found for light-chain MGUS.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings of evolving risk patterns support annual blood testing and risk assessment for patients with MGUS or light-chain MGUS.
Authors: Doyle MT, Bernstein HD
Journal: Nat Commun. 2019 Jul 26;10(1):3358. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-11230-9.
The integration of β-barrel proteins into the bacterial outer membrane (OM) is catalysed by the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM). The central BAM subunit (BamA) itself contains a β-barrel domain that is essential for OM protein biogenesis, but its mechanism of action is unknown. To elucidate its function, here we develop a method to trap a native Escherichia coli β-barrel protein bound stably to BamA at a late stage of assembly in vivo. Using disulfide-bond crosslinking, we find that the first β-strand of a laterally 'open' form of the BamA β-barrel forms a rigid interface with the C-terminal β-strand of the substrate. In contrast, the lipid-facing surface of the last two BamA β-strands forms weaker, conformationally heterogeneous interactions with the first β-strand of the substrate that likely represent intermediate assembly states. Based on our results, we propose that BamA promotes the membrane integration of partially folded β-barrels by a 'swing' mechanism.
Authors: Magen A, Das Sahu A, Lee JS, Sharmin M, Lugo A, Gutkind JS, Schäffer AA, Ruppin E, Hannenhalli S
Journal: Cell Rep. 2019 Jul 23;28(4):938-948.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.06.067.
The phenotypic effect of perturbing a gene's activity depends on the activity level of other genes, reflecting the notion that phenotypes are emergent properties of a network of functionally interacting genes. In the context of cancer, contemporary investigations have primarily focused on just one type of functional relationship between two genes-synthetic lethality (SL). Here, we define the more general concept of "survival-associated pairwise gene expression states" (SPAGEs) as gene pairs whose joint expression levels are associated with survival. We describe a data-driven approach called SPAGE-finder that when applied to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data identified 71,946 SPAGEs spanning 12 distinct types, only a minority of which are SLs. The detected SPAGEs explain cancer driver genes' tissue specificity and differences in patients' response to drugs and stratify breast cancer tumors into refined subtypes. These results expand the scope of cancer SPAGEs and lay a conceptual basis for future studies of SPAGEs and their translational applications.
Authors: Fujita K, Chakarov S, Kobayashi T, Sakamoto K, Voisin B, Duan K, Nakagawa T, Horiuchi K, Amagai M, Ginhoux F, Nagao K
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Jul 1. pii: 201818907. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1818907116. [Epub ahead of print]
Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) derive from bone marrow (BM) precursors that undergo cascades of developmental programs to terminally differentiate in peripheral tissues. Pre-cDC1s and pre-cDC2s commit in the BM to each differentiate into CD8α+/CD103+ cDC1s and CD11b+ cDC2s, respectively. Although both cDCs rely on the cytokine FLT3L during development, mechanisms that ensure cDC accessibility to FLT3L have yet to be elucidated. Here, we generated mice that lacked a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10 in DCs (Itgax-cre × Adam10-fl/fl; ADAM10∆DC) and found that ADAM10 deletion markedly impacted splenic cDC2 development. Pre-cDC2s accumulated in the spleen with transcriptomic alterations that reflected their inability to differentiate and exhibited abrupt failure to survive as terminally differentiated cDC2s. Induced ADAM10 ablation also led to the reduction of terminally differentiated cDC2s, and restoration of Notch signaling, a major pathway downstream of ADAM10, only modestly rescued them. ADAM10∆DC BM failed to generate cDC2s in BM chimeric mice with or without cotransferred ADAM10-sufficient BM, indicating that cDC2 development required cell-autonomous ADAM10. We determined cDC2s to be sources of soluble FLT3L, as supported by decreased serum FLT3L concentration and the retention of membrane-bound FLT3L on cDC2 surfaces in ADAM10∆DC mice, and by demonstrating the release of soluble FLT3L by cDC2 in ex vivo culture supernatants. Through in vitro studies utilizing murine embryonic fibroblasts, we determined FLT3L to be a substrate for ADAM10. These data collectively reveal cDC2s as FLT3L sources and highlight a cell-autonomous mechanism that may enhance FLT3L accessibility for cDC2 development and survival.
Authors: Ferris AL, Wells DW, Guo S, Del Prete GQ, Swanstrom AE, Coffin JM, Wu X, Lifson JD, Hughes SH
Journal: PLoS Pathog. 2019 Jul 10;15(7):e1007869. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007869. eCollection 2019 Jul.
Clonal expansion of HIV infected cells plays an important role in the formation and persistence of the reservoir that allows the virus to persist, in DNA form, despite effective antiretroviral therapy. We used integration site analysis to ask if there is a similar clonal expansion of SIV infected cells in macaques. We show that the distribution of HIV and SIV integration sites in vitro is similar and that both viruses preferentially integrate in many of the same genes. We obtained approximately 8000 integration sites from blood samples taken from SIV-infected macaques prior to the initiation of ART, and from blood, spleen, and lymph node samples taken at necropsy. Seven clones were identified in the pre-ART samples; one persisted for a year on ART. An additional 100 clones were found only in on-ART samples; a number of these clones were found in more than one tissue. The timing and extent of clonal expansion of SIV-infected cells in macaques and HIV-infected cells in humans is quite similar. This suggests that SIV-infected macaques represent a useful model of the clonal expansion of HIV infected cells in humans that can be used to evaluate strategies intended to control or eradicate the viral reservoir.
Authors: Carmona-Rivera C, Khaznadar SS, Shwin KW, Irizarry-Caro JA, O'Neil LJ, Liu Y, Jacobson KA, Ombrello AK, Stone DL, Tsai WL, Kastner DL, Aksentijevich I, Kaplan MJ, Grayson PC
Journal: Blood. 2019 Jul 25;134(4):395-406. doi: 10.1182/blood.2018892752.
Reduction of adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) activity due to autosomal-recessive loss-of-function mutations in the ADA2 gene (previously known as CECR1) results in a systemic vasculitis known as deficiency of ADA2 (DADA2). Neutrophils and a subset of neutrophils known as low-density granulocytes (LDGs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vasculitis, at least in part, through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The study objective was to determine whether neutrophils and NETs play a pathogenic role in DADA2. In vivo evidence demonstrated NETs and macrophages in affected gastrointestinal tissue from patients with DADA2. An abundance of circulating LDGs prone to spontaneous NET formation was observed during active disease in DADA2 and were significantly reduced after remission induction by anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. Increased circulating LDGs were identified in unaffected family members with monoallelic ADA2 mutations. Adenosine triggered NET formation, particularly in neutrophils from female patients, by engaging A1 and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) and through reactive oxygen species- and peptidylarginine deiminase-dependent pathways. Adenosine-induced NET formation was inhibited by recombinant ADA2, A1/A3 AR antagonists, or by an A2A agonist. M1 macrophages incubated with NETs derived from patients with DADA2 released significantly greater amounts of TNF-α. Treatment with an A2AAR agonist decreased nuclear translocation of NF-κB and subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines in DADA2 monocyte-derived macrophages. These results suggest that neutrophils may play a pathogenic role in DADA2. Modulation of adenosine-mediated NET formation may contribute a novel and directed therapeutic approach in the treatment of DADA2 and potentially other inflammatory diseases.
Authors: Lee M, Hwang YS, Yoon J, Sun J, Harned A, Nagashima K, Daar IO
Journal: J Cell Biol. 2019 Jul 3. pii: jcb.201811147. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201811147. [Epub ahead of print]
Cilia are critical for proper embryonic development and maintaining homeostasis. Although extensively studied, there are still significant gaps regarding the proteins involved in regulating ciliogenesis. Using the Xenopus laevis embryo, we show that Dishevelled (Dvl), a key Wnt signaling scaffold that is critical to proper ciliogenesis, interacts with Drg1 (developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1). The loss of Drg1 or disruption of the interaction with Dvl reduces the length and number of cilia and displays defects in basal body migration and docking to the apical surface of multiciliated cells (MCCs). Moreover, Drg1 morphants display abnormal rotational polarity of basal bodies and a decrease in apical actin and RhoA activity that can be attributed to disruption of the protein complex between Dvl and Daam1, as well as between Daam1 and RhoA. These results support the concept that the Drg1-Dvl interaction regulates apical actin polymerization and stability in MCCs. Thus, Drg1 is a newly identified partner of Dvl in regulating ciliogenesis.
Authors: Gray EE, Murphy JG, Liu Y, Trang I, Tabor GT, Lin L, Hoffman DA
Journal: J Neurosci. 2019 Jul 26. pii: 1443-17. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1443-17.2019. [Epub ahead of print]
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is an inherited intellectual impairment that results from the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an mRNA binding protein that regulates mRNA translation at synapses. The absence of FMRP leads to neuronal and circuit-level hyperexcitability that is thought to arise from the aberrant expression and activity of voltage-gated ion channels, although the identification and characterization of these ion channels has been limited. Here, we show that FMRP binds the mRNA of the R-type voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.3 in mouse brain synaptoneurosomes and represses Cav2.3 translation under basal conditions. Consequently, in hippocampal neurons from male and female FMRP knock-out (KO) mice, we find enhanced Cav2.3 protein expression by western blotting and abnormally large R-currents in whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings. In agreement with previous studies showing that FMRP couples group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (GpI mGluR) signaling to protein translation, we find that GpI mGluR stimulation results in increased Cav2.3 translation and R-current in hippocampal neurons which is disrupted in FMRP KO mice. Thus, FMRP serves as a key translational regulator of Cav2.3 expression under basal conditions and in response to GpI mGluR stimulation. Loss of regulated Cav2.3 expression could underlie the neuronal hyperactivity and aberrant calcium spiking in FMRP KO mice and contribute to FXS, potentially serving as a novel target for future therapeutic strategies.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Patients with FXS exhibit signs of neuronal and circuit hyperexcitability including anxiety and hyperactive behavior, attention deficit disorder and seizures. FXS is caused by the loss of FMRP, an mRNA binding protein, and the neuronal hyperexcitability observed in the absence of FMRP likely results from its ability to regulate the expression and activity of voltage-gated ion channels. Here we find that FMRP serves as a key translational regulator of the voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.3 under basal conditions and following activity. Cav2.3 impacts cellular excitability and calcium signaling, and the alterations in channel translation and expression observed in the absence of FMRP could contribute to the neuronal hyperactivity that underlies FXS.