Authors: Yokoyama S, Cai Y, Murata M, Tomita T, Yoneda M, Xu L, Pilon AL, Cachau RE, Kimura S
Journal: Elife. 2018 Dec 7;7. pii: e37854. doi: 10.7554/eLife.37854.
Intracellular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers the non-canonical inflammasome pathway, resulting in pyroptosis of innate immune cells. In addition to its well-known proinflammatory role, LPS can directly cause regression of some tumors, although the underlying mechanism has remained unknown. Here we show that secretoglobin(SCGB)3A2, a small protein predominantly secreted in airways, chaperones LPS to the cytosol through the cell surface receptor syndecan-1; this leads to pyroptotic cell death driven by caspase-11. SCGB3A2 and LPS co-treatment significantly induced pyroptosis of macrophage RAW264.7 cells and decreased cancer cell proliferation in vitro, while SCGB3A2 treatment resulted in reduced progression of xenograft tumors in mice. These data suggest a conserved function for SCGB3A2 in the innate immune system and cancer cells. These findings demonstrate a critical role for SCGB3A2 as an LPS delivery vehicle; they reveal one mechanism whereby LPS enters innate immune cells leading to pyroptosis, and they clarify the direct effect of LPS on cancer cells.
Authors: Arango D, Sturgill D, Alhusaini N, Dillman AA, Sweet TJ, Hanson G, Hosogane M, Sinclair WR, Nanan KK, Mandler MD, Fox SD, Zengeya TT, Andresson T, Meier JL, Coller J, Oberdoerffer S
Journal: Cell. 2018 Dec 13;175:1-15. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.10.030. Epub 2018 Nov 15.
Generation of the “epitranscriptome” through post-transcriptional ribonucleoside modification embeds a layer of regulatory complexity into RNA structure and function. Here, we describe N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) as an mRNA modification that is catalyzed by the acetyltransferase NAT10. Transcriptome-wide mapping of ac4C revealed discretely acetylated regions that were enriched within coding sequences. Ablation of NAT10 reduced ac4C detection at the mapped mRNA sites and was globally associated with target mRNA downregulation. Analysis of mRNA half-lives revealed a NAT10-dependent increase in stability in the cohort of acetylated mRNAs. mRNA acetylation was further demonstrated to enhance substrate translation in vitro and in vivo. Codon content analysis within ac4C peaks uncovered a biased representation of cytidine within wobble sites that was empirically determined to influence mRNA decoding efficiency. These findings expand the repertoire of mRNA modifications to include an acetylated residue and establish a role for ac4C in the regulation of mRNA translation.
Authors: He B, Deng T, Zhu I, Furusawa T, Zhang S, Tang W, Postnikov Y, Ambs S, Li CC, Livak F, Landsman D, Bustin M
Journal: Nat Commun. 2018 Dec 7;9(1):5240. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07687-9
The dynamic nature of the chromatin epigenetic landscape plays a key role in the establishment and maintenance of cell identity, yet the factors that affect the dynamics of the epigenome are not fully known. Here we find that the ubiquitous nucleosome binding proteins HMGN1 and HMGN2 preferentially colocalize with epigenetic marks of active chromatin, and with cell-type specific enhancers. Loss of HMGNs enhances the rate of OSKM induced reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and the ASCL1 induced conversion of fibroblast into neurons. During transcription factor induced reprogramming to pluripotency, loss of HMGNs accelerates the erasure of the MEF-specific epigenetic landscape and the establishment of an iPSCs-specific chromatin landscape, without affecting the pluripotency potential and the differentiation potential of the reprogrammed cells. Thus, HMGN proteins modulate the plasticity of the chromatin epigenetic landscape thereby stabilizing, rather than determining cell identity.
Authors: Zeidan Q, He F, Zhang F, Zhang H, Jacobson A, Hinnebusch AG
Journal: PLoS Genet. 2018 Dec 7;14(12):e1007806. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007806. [Epub ahead of print]
Scd6 protein family members are evolutionarily conserved components of translationally silent mRNA granules. Yeast Scd6 interacts with Dcp2 and Dhh1, respectively a subunit and a regulator of the mRNA decapping enzyme, and also associates with translation initiation factor eIF4G to inhibit translation in cell extracts. However, the role of Scd6 in mRNA turnover and translational repression in vivo is unclear. We demonstrate that tethering Scd6 to a GFP reporter mRNA reduces mRNA abundance via Dcp2 and suppresses reporter mRNA translation via Dhh1. Thus, in a dcp2Δ mutant, tethered Scd6 reduces GFP protein expression with little effect on mRNA abundance, whereas tethered Scd6 has no impact on GFP protein or mRNA expression in a dcp2Δ dhh1Δ double mutant. The conserved LSm domain, but not the RGG domain, of Scd6 is required for translational repression and mRNA turnover by tethered Scd6. Both functions are enhanced in a ccr4Δ mutant, suggesting that the deadenylase function of Ccr4-Not complex interferes with a more efficient repression pathway enlisted by Scd6. Ribosome profiling and RNA-Seq analysis of scd6Δ and dhh1Δ mutants suggests that Scd6 cooperates with Dhh1 in translational repression and turnover of particular native mRNAs, with both processes dependent on Dcp2. Our results suggest that Scd6 can (i) recruit Dhh1 to confer translational repression and (ii) activate mRNA decapping by Dcp2 with attendant degradation of specific mRNAs in vivo, in a manner dependent on the Scd6 LSm domain and modulated by Ccr4.
Authors: Manna A, Zhao H, Wada J, Balagopalan L, Tagad HD, Appella E, Schuck P, Samelson LE
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Dec 3. pii: 201817142. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1817142115. [Epub ahead of print]
The T cell antigen receptor encounters foreign antigen during the immune response. Receptor engagement leads to activation of specific protein tyrosine kinases, which then phosphorylate multiple enzymes and adapter proteins. One such enzyme, phospholipase-Cγ1, is responsible for cleavage of a plasma membrane lipid substrate, a phosphoinositide, into two second messengers, diacylglycerol, which activates several enzymes including protein kinase C, and an inositol phosphate, which induces intracellular calcium elevation. In T cells, phospholipase-Cγ1 is recruited to the plasma membrane as part of a four-protein complex containing three adapter molecules. We have used recombinant proteins and synthetic phosphopeptides to reconstitute this quaternary complex in vitro. Extending biophysical tools to study concurrent interactions of the four protein components, we demonstrated the formation and determined the composition of the quaternary complex using multisignal analytical ultracentrifugation, and we characterized the thermodynamic driving forces of assembly by isothermal calorimetry. We demonstrate that the four proteins reversibly associate in a circular arrangement of binding interfaces, each protein interacting with two others. Three interactions are of high affinity, and the fourth is of low affinity, with the assembly of the quaternary complexexhibiting significant enthalpy-entropy compensation as in an entropic switch. Formation of this protein complex enables subsequent recruitment of additional molecules needed to activate phospholipase-Cγ1. Understanding the formation of this complex is fundamental to full characterization of a central pathway in T cell activation. Such knowledge is critical to developing ways in which this pathway can be selectively inhibited.
Authors: Ikeuchi T, de Vega S, Forcinito P, Doyle AD, Amaral J, Rodriguez IR, Arikawa-Hirasawa E, Yamada Y
Journal: Sci Rep. 2018 Dec 5;8(1):17654. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-36182-w
Angiogenesis is crucial for tissue development and homeostasis; however, excessive angiogenesis can lead to diseases, including arthritis and cancer metastasis. Some antiangiogenic drugs are available, but side effects remain problematic. Thus, alternative angiogenesis inhibition strategies are needed. Fibulin-7 (Fbln7) is a newly discovered member of the fibulin protein family, a group of cell-secreted glycoproteins, that functions as a cell adhesion molecule and interacts with other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins as well as cell receptors. We previously showed that a recombinant C-terminal Fbln7 fragment (Fbln7-C) inhibits tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. In the present study, we examined the in vivo antiangiogenic activity of recombinant full-length Fbln7 (Fbln7-FL) and Fbln7-C proteins using a rat corneal angiogenesis model. We found that both Fbln7-FL and Fbln7-C inhibited neovascularization. Fbln7-C bound to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), inhibiting VEGFR2 and ERK phosphorylation and resulting in reduced HUVEC motility. HUVEC attachment to Fbln7-C occurred through an interaction with integrin α5β1 and regulated changes in cellular morphology. These results suggest that Fbln7-C action may target neovascularization by altering cell/ECM associations. Therefore, Fbln7-C could have potential as a therapeutic agent for diseases associated with angiogenesis.
Authors: Riggle BA, Sinharay S, Schreiber-Stainthorp W, Munasinghe JP, Maric D, Prchalova E, Slusher BS, Powell JD, Miller LH, Pierce SK, Hammoud DA
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Dec 4. pii: 201812909. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1812909115. [Epub ahead of print]
The deadliest complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection is cerebral malaria (CM), with a case fatality rate of 15 to 25% in African children despite effective antimalarial chemotherapy. No adjunctive treatments are yet available for this devastating disease. We previously reported that the glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON) rescued mice from experimental CM (ECM) when administered late in the infection, a time by which mice had already suffered blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, brain swelling, and hemorrhaging. Herein, we used longitudinal MR imaging to visualize brain pathology in ECM and the impact of a new DON prodrug, JHU-083, on disease progression in mice. We demonstrate in vivo the reversal of disease markers in symptomatic, infected mice following treatment, including the resolution of edema and BBB disruption, findings usually associated with a fatal outcome in children and adults with CM. Our results support the premise that JHU-083 is a potential adjunctive treatment that could rescue children and adults from fatal CM.
Authors: Ramanagoudr-Bhojappa R, Carrington B, Ramaswami M, Bishop K, Robbins GM, Jones M, Harper U, Frederickson SC, Kimble DC, Sood R, Chandrasekharappa SC
Journal: PLoS Genet. 2018 Dec 12;14(12):e1007821. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007821. [Epub ahead of print]
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a genomic instability syndrome resulting in aplastic anemia, developmental abnormalities, and predisposition to hematological and other solid organ malignancies. Mutations in genes that encode proteins of the FA pathway fail to orchestrate the repair of DNA damage caused by DNA interstrand crosslinks. Zebrafish harbor homologs for nearly all known FA genes. We used multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis to generate loss-of-function mutants for 17 FA genes: fanca, fancb, fancc, fancd1/brca2, fancd2, fance, fancf, fancg, fanci, fancj/brip1, fancl, fancm, fancn/palb2, fanco/rad51c, fancp/slx4, fancq/ercc4, fanct/ube2t, and two genes encoding FA-associated proteins: faap100 and faap24. We selected two indel mutations predicted to cause premature truncations for all but two of the genes, and a total of 36 mutant lines were generated for 19 genes. Generating two independent mutant lines for each gene was important to validate their phenotypic consequences. RT-PCR from homozygous mutant fish confirmed the presence of transcripts with indels in all genes. Interestingly, 4 of the indel mutations led to aberrant splicing, which may produce a different protein than predicted from the genomic sequence. Analysis of RNA is thus critical in proper evaluation of the consequences of the mutations introduced in zebrafish genome. We used fluorescent reporter assay, and western blots to confirm loss-of-function for several mutants. Additionally, we developed a DEB treatment assay by evaluating morphological changes in embryos and confirmed that homozygous mutants from all the FA genes that could be tested (11/17), displayed hypersensitivity and thus were indeed null alleles. Our multiplexing strategy helped us to evaluate 11 multiple gene knockout combinations without additional breeding. Homozygous zebrafish for all 19 single and 11 multi-gene knockouts were adult viable, indicating FA genes in zebrafish are generally not essential for early development. None of the mutant fish displayed gross developmental abnormalities except for fancp-/- fish, which were significantly smaller in length than their wildtype clutch mates. Complete female-to-male sex reversal was observed in knockouts for 12/17 FA genes, while partial sex reversal was seen for the other five gene knockouts. All adult females were fertile, and among the adult males, all were fertile except for the fancd1 mutants and one of the fancj mutants. We report here generation and characterization of zebrafish knockout mutants for 17 FA disease-causing genes, providing an integral resource for understanding the pathophysiology associated with the disrupted FA pathway.
Authors: Wälti MA, Steiner J, Meng F, Chung HS, Louis JM, Ghirlando R, Tugarinov V, Nath A, Clore GM
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Dec 3. pii: 201817477. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1817477115. [Epub ahead of print]
The human chaperonin Hsp60 is thought to play a role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease by mitigating against intracellular β-amyloid stress. Here, we show that the bacterial homolog GroEL (51% sequence identity) reduces the neurotoxic effects of amyloid-β(1-42) (Aβ42) on human neural stem cell-derived neuronal cultures. To understand the mechanism of GroEL-mediated abrogation of neurotoxicity, we studied the interaction of Aβ42 with GroEL using a variety of biophysical techniques. Aβ42 binds to GroEL as a monomer with a lifetime of ∼1 ms, as determined from global analysis of multiple relaxation-based NMR experiments. Dynamic light scattering demonstrates that GroEL dissolves small amounts of high-molecular-weight polydisperse aggregates present in fresh soluble Aβ42 preparations. The residue-specific transverse relaxation rate profile for GroEL-bound Aβ42 reveals the presence of three anchor-binding regions (residues 16-21, 31-34, and 40-41) located within the hydrophobic GroEL-consensus binding sequences. Single-molecule FRET analysis of Aβ42 binding to GroEL results in no significant change in the FRET efficiency of a doubly labeled Aβ42 construct, indicating that Aβ42 samples a random coil ensemble when bound to GroEL. Finally, GroEL substantially slows down the disappearance of NMR visible Aβ42 species and the appearance of Aβ42 protofibrils and fibrils as monitored by electron and atomic force microscopies. The latter observations correlate with the effect of GroEL on the time course of Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity. These data provide a physical basis for understanding how Hsp60 may serve to slow down the progression of Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Merikangas KR, Swendsen J, Hickie IB, Cui L, Shou H, Merikangas AK, Zhang J, Lamers F, Crainiceanu C, Volkow ND, Zipunnikov V
Journal: JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 Dec 12. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.3546. [Epub ahead of print]
IMPORTANCE: Biologic systems involved in the regulation of motor activity are intricately linked with other homeostatic systems such as sleep, feeding behavior, energy, and mood. Mobile monitoring technology (eg, actigraphy and ecological momentary assessment devices) allows the assessment of these multiple systems in real time. However, most clinical studies of mental disorders that use mobile devices have not focused on the dynamic associations between these systems.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the directional associations among motor activity, energy, mood, and sleep using mobile monitoring in a community-identified sample, and to evaluate whether these within-day associations differ between people with a history of bipolar or other mood disorders and controls without mood disorders.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study used a nested case-control design of 242 adults, a subsample of a community-based sample of adults. Probands were recruited by mail from the greater Washington, DC, metropolitan area from January 2005 to June 2013. Enrichment of the sample for mood disorders was provided by volunteers or referrals from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center or by participants in the National Institute of Mental Health Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program. The inclusion criteria were the ability to speak English, availability to participate, and consent to contact at least 2 living first-degree relatives. Data analysis was performed from June 2013 through July 2018.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Motor activity and sleep duration data were obtained from minute-to-minute activity counts from an actigraphy device worn on the nondominant wrist for 2 weeks. Mood and energy levels were assessed by subjective analogue ratings on the ecological momentary assessment (using a personal digital assistant) by participants 4 times per day for 2 weeks.
RESULTS: Of the total 242 participants, 92 (38.1%) were men and 150 (61.9%) were women, with a mean (SD) age of 48 (16.9) years. Among the participants, 54 (22.3%) had bipolar disorder (25 with bipolar I; 29 with bipolar II), 91 (37.6%) had major depressive disorder, and 97 (40.1%) were controls with no history of mood disorders. A unidirectional association was found between motor activity and subjective mood level (β = -0.018, P = .04). Bidirectional associations were observed between motor activity (β = 0.176; P = .03) and subjective energylevel (β = 0.027; P = .03) as well as between motor activity (β = -0.027; P = .04) and sleep duration (β = -0.154; P = .04). Greater cross-domain reactivity was observed in bipolar disorder across all outcomes, including motor activity, sleep, mood, and energy.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that interventions focused on motor activity and energy may have greater efficacy than current approaches that target depressed mood; both active and passive tracking of multiple regulatory systems are important in designing therapeutic targets.